   Chapter 10, Problem 91E

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Plot the following data and determine ∆Hvap for magnesium and lithium. In which metal is the bonding stronger? Vapor Pressure (mm Hg) Temperature(°C) Li Mg 1 750. 620. 10 890. 740. 100 1080. 900. 400 1240. 1040. 760 1310. 1110.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The stronger bonding metal should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Equilibrium vapor pressure:

• The pressure throw by vapor of the substance is equilibrium with  liquid or solid state of same substance is called the equilibrium vapor pressure, thus,
•                     ln(Pvap1Pvap2)=ΔΗvapR(1T2-1T1)......(1)Pvap1andPvap2arevapor pressuresT1andT2aretemperaturesΔΗvapisenthalpy of vaporizationR is constant

Heat of vaporization:

• The energy required for a quantity of liquid substance converted in to into a gases substance is called heat of vaporization.
• The vaporization process take place at constant temperature is called enthalpy of vaporization.
Explanation

Explanation

• The given temperature and pressure of LiandMg are recorded as shown above.

To draw the plot fro given temperature against pressure of the metals.

The plate of given pressure and temperature is,

The given temperature is converted as 104T form and plotted.

ln(Pvap)=-ΔΗvapR(1T)+C

y=ln(Pvap)x=1Tm=slope=-ΔΗvapRb=intercept=C

• The given temperature and pressure are plotted and from the slope the enthalpy of vaporization is calculated.

To calculated the enthalpy of vaporization of given metals.

For Lithium metal,

lnPvap=-1.90×104(1/T)+18.6slope=-1.90×104KΔΗvap=-slope×R......(2)=1

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