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Discrete Mathematics With Applicat...

5th Edition
EPP + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337694193

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Discrete Mathematics With Applicat...

5th Edition
EPP + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337694193
Textbook Problem
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Prove that each of the properties in 21-29 is an invariant for graph isomorphism. Assume that n, m, and k are all nonnegative integers.

Has a Hamiltonian circuit

To determine

To prove:

Prove that the property (has a Hamiltonian circuit) is an invariant for graph isomorphism.

Explanation

Given information:

Assume that n, m and k are all nonnegative integers.

Proof:

Let G and G be isomorphic graphs and let the graph G contain a Hamiltonian circuit.

We then need to show that G has a Hamiltonian circuit.

Let V ( G ) be the set of vertices of G and let V(G) be the set of vertices of G.

Let E(G) be the set of edges of G and let E ( G’ ) be the set of edges of G.

Since G and G are isomorphic, there exists two one-to-one correspondences

g:V(G)V(G') and h:E(G)E(G') such that v is an endpoint of e.g(v) is an endpoint of h(e)

Let k be a positive integer and let the Hamilton circuit in G be  v 1 e 1 v 2 e 2 .... v k e k v 1 with  v i V( G )

and  e i E( G ) gor i=1,2,...,k. 

This then implies that the Hamilton circuit contains at least one edge,  e 1 , e 2 ,..., e k  contains no repeated 

edges,  v 1 v 2 ,..., v k  contains no repeated vertices and  v 1 , v 2 ,..., v k  are all vertices in G.

g( v 1 )h( e 1 )g( v 2 )h( e 2 )....g( v k )h( e k )g( v 1 ) is then a walk of length k in  G ,because vis an endpoint of e.

g( v ) is an endpoint of h( e ). 

Moreover, this walk contains at least one edge (as  v 1 e 1 v 2 e 2

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Sect-10.1 P-2ESSect-10.1 P-3ESSect-10.1 P-4ESSect-10.1 P-5ESSect-10.1 P-6ESSect-10.1 P-7ESSect-10.1 P-8ESSect-10.1 P-9ESSect-10.1 P-10ESSect-10.1 P-11ESSect-10.1 P-12ESSect-10.1 P-13ESSect-10.1 P-14ESSect-10.1 P-15ESSect-10.1 P-16ESSect-10.1 P-17ESSect-10.1 P-18ESSect-10.1 P-19ESSect-10.1 P-20ESSect-10.1 P-21ESSect-10.1 P-22ESSect-10.1 P-23ESSect-10.1 P-24ESSect-10.1 P-25ESSect-10.1 P-26ESSect-10.1 P-27ESSect-10.1 P-28ESSect-10.1 P-29ESSect-10.1 P-30ESSect-10.1 P-31ESSect-10.1 P-32ESSect-10.1 P-33ESSect-10.1 P-34ESSect-10.1 P-35ESSect-10.1 P-36ESSect-10.1 P-37ESSect-10.1 P-38ESSect-10.1 P-39ESSect-10.1 P-40ESSect-10.1 P-41ESSect-10.1 P-42ESSect-10.1 P-43ESSect-10.1 P-44ESSect-10.1 P-45ESSect-10.1 P-46ESSect-10.1 P-47ESSect-10.1 P-48ESSect-10.1 P-49ESSect-10.1 P-50ESSect-10.1 P-51ESSect-10.1 P-52ESSect-10.1 P-53ESSect-10.1 P-54ESSect-10.1 P-55ESSect-10.1 P-56ESSect-10.1 P-57ESSect-10.2 P-1TYSect-10.2 P-2TYSect-10.2 P-3TYSect-10.2 P-4TYSect-10.2 P-5TYSect-10.2 P-6TYSect-10.2 P-1ESSect-10.2 P-2ESSect-10.2 P-3ESSect-10.2 P-4ESSect-10.2 P-5ESSect-10.2 P-6ESSect-10.2 P-7ESSect-10.2 P-8ESSect-10.2 P-9ESSect-10.2 P-10ESSect-10.2 P-11ESSect-10.2 P-12ESSect-10.2 P-13ESSect-10.2 P-14ESSect-10.2 P-15ESSect-10.2 P-16ESSect-10.2 P-17ESSect-10.2 P-18ESSect-10.2 P-19ESSect-10.2 P-20ESSect-10.2 P-21ESSect-10.2 P-22ESSect-10.2 P-23ESSect-10.3 P-1TYSect-10.3 P-2TYSect-10.3 P-3TYSect-10.3 P-1ESSect-10.3 P-2ESSect-10.3 P-3ESSect-10.3 P-4ESSect-10.3 P-5ESSect-10.3 P-6ESSect-10.3 P-7ESSect-10.3 P-8ESSect-10.3 P-9ESSect-10.3 P-10ESSect-10.3 P-11ESSect-10.3 P-12ESSect-10.3 P-13ESSect-10.3 P-14ESSect-10.3 P-15ESSect-10.3 P-16ESSect-10.3 P-17ESSect-10.3 P-18ESSect-10.3 P-19ESSect-10.3 P-20ESSect-10.3 P-21ESSect-10.3 P-22ESSect-10.3 P-23ESSect-10.3 P-24ESSect-10.3 P-25ESSect-10.3 P-26ESSect-10.3 P-27ESSect-10.3 P-28ESSect-10.3 P-29ESSect-10.3 P-30ESSect-10.4 P-1TYSect-10.4 P-2TYSect-10.4 P-3TYSect-10.4 P-4TYSect-10.4 P-5TYSect-10.4 P-6TYSect-10.4 P-7TYSect-10.4 P-1ESSect-10.4 P-2ESSect-10.4 P-3ESSect-10.4 P-4ESSect-10.4 P-5ESSect-10.4 P-6ESSect-10.4 P-7ESSect-10.4 P-8ESSect-10.4 P-9ESSect-10.4 P-10ESSect-10.4 P-11ESSect-10.4 P-12ESSect-10.4 P-13ESSect-10.4 P-14ESSect-10.4 P-15ESSect-10.4 P-16ESSect-10.4 P-17ESSect-10.4 P-18ESSect-10.4 P-19ESSect-10.4 P-20ESSect-10.4 P-21ESSect-10.4 P-22ESSect-10.4 P-23ESSect-10.4 P-24ESSect-10.4 P-25ESSect-10.4 P-26ESSect-10.4 P-27ESSect-10.4 P-28ESSect-10.4 P-29ESSect-10.4 P-30ESSect-10.4 P-31ESSect-10.5 P-1TYSect-10.5 P-2TYSect-10.5 P-3TYSect-10.5 P-4TYSect-10.5 P-5TYSect-10.5 P-1ESSect-10.5 P-2ESSect-10.5 P-3ESSect-10.5 P-4ESSect-10.5 P-5ESSect-10.5 P-6ESSect-10.5 P-7ESSect-10.5 P-8ESSect-10.5 P-9ESSect-10.5 P-10ESSect-10.5 P-11ESSect-10.5 P-12ESSect-10.5 P-13ESSect-10.5 P-14ESSect-10.5 P-15ESSect-10.5 P-16ESSect-10.5 P-17ESSect-10.5 P-18ESSect-10.5 P-19ESSect-10.5 P-20ESSect-10.5 P-21ESSect-10.5 P-22ESSect-10.5 P-23ESSect-10.5 P-24ESSect-10.5 P-25ESSect-10.6 P-1TYSect-10.6 P-2TYSect-10.6 P-3TYSect-10.6 P-4TYSect-10.6 P-5TYSect-10.6 P-6TYSect-10.6 P-7TYSect-10.6 P-1ESSect-10.6 P-2ESSect-10.6 P-3ESSect-10.6 P-4ESSect-10.6 P-5ESSect-10.6 P-6ESSect-10.6 P-7ESSect-10.6 P-8ESSect-10.6 P-9ESSect-10.6 P-10ESSect-10.6 P-11ESSect-10.6 P-12ESSect-10.6 P-13ESSect-10.6 P-14ESSect-10.6 P-15ESSect-10.6 P-16ESSect-10.6 P-17ESSect-10.6 P-18ESSect-10.6 P-19ESSect-10.6 P-20ESSect-10.6 P-21ESSect-10.6 P-22ESSect-10.6 P-23ESSect-10.6 P-24ESSect-10.6 P-25ESSect-10.6 P-26ESSect-10.6 P-27ESSect-10.6 P-28ESSect-10.6 P-29ESSect-10.6 P-30ESSect-10.6 P-31ES