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Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759
BuyFind

Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759

Solutions

Chapter 11, Problem 11.10P
Textbook Problem

Answer true or false.

  1. A hydrocarbon is composed only of the elements carbon and hydrogen.

  • Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.
  • The general formula of an alkane is C„H2„.2, where n is the number of carbons in the alkane,
  • Alkenes and alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons.
  • Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (a)

    Interpretation:

    Interpret the following statement as true or false.

    ‘Hydrocarbon composed of carbon and hydrogen‘.

    Concept Introduction:

    Hydrocarbon contains only carbon and hydrogen. They can be saturated or unsaturated depending upon the type of carbon-carbon bonds. Saturated chain of hydrocarbon contains only single bonds. The carbon in saturated hydrocarbon are joined to each other with single bond and they are sp3 hybridized. Unsaturated hydrocarbons can have double or triple bonds, the carbon atoms in double bond are sp2 hybridized and that in triple bond are sp.

    The general formula for alkane is CnH2n+2 which is a saturated hydrocarbon.

    Answer to Problem 11.10P

    The given statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    The given statement is true because hydrocarbon made of carbon and hydrogen.

    The general formula for alkane is CnH2n+2 which is a saturated hydrocarbon. From the general formula, hydrocarbon contains only carbon and hydrogen which are joined to produce long chain of either alkane, alkene or alkyne.

    Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (b)

    Interpretation:

    Interpret the following statement as true or false.

    ‘Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbon’.

    Concept Introduction:

    Hydrocarbon contains only carbon and hydrogen. They can be saturated or unsaturated depending upon the type of carbon-carbon bonds. Saturated chain of hydrocarbon contains only single bonds. The carbon in saturated hydrocarbon are joined to each other with single bond and they are sp3 hybridized. Unsaturated hydrocarbons can have double or triple bonds, the carbon atoms in double bond are sp2 hybridized and that in triple bond are sp.

    The general formula for alkane is CnH2n+2 which is a saturated hydrocarbon.

    Answer to Problem 11.10P

    The given statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    Saturated chain of hydrocarbon contains only single bonds. The carbon in saturated hydrocarbon are joined to each other with single bond and they are sp3 hybridized.

    A single bonded carbon atom is usually sp3 hybridized and if present in hydrocarbon chain then known as saturated chain of hydrocarbon.

    Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (c)

    Interpretation:

    Interpret the following statement as true or false.

    ‘General formula of alkane is Cn H2n +2 ’.

    Concept Introduction:

    Hydrocarbon contains only carbon and hydrogen. They can be saturated or unsaturated depending upon the type of carbon-carbon bonds. Saturated chain of hydrocarbon contains only single bonds. The carbon in saturated hydrocarbon are joined to each other with single bond and they are sp3 hybridized. Unsaturated hydrocarbons can have double or triple bonds, the carbon atoms in double bond are sp2 hybridized and that in triple bond are sp.

    The general formula for alkane is CnH2n+2 which is a saturated hydrocarbon.

    Answer to Problem 11.10P

    The given statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    Methane with molecular formula CH4, ethane with molecular formula C2H6, Propane with molecular formula C3 H8 and butane with molecular formula C4 H10 are the examples of alkane. Their molecular formula indicates the number of hydrogen atoms is 2 more than twice the number of carbon atoms in the structure and thus the derived formula for alkane is Cn H2n +2.

    Thus, the general formula for alkane is Cn H2n +2.

    Where, n is number of carbon atoms in the principal chain.

    Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (d)

    Interpretation:

    Interpret the following statement as true or false.

    ‘Alkene and alkyne are unsaturated hydrocarbon’.

    Concept Introduction:

    Hydrocarbon contains only carbon and hydrogen. They can be saturated or unsaturated depending upon the type of carbon-carbon bonds. Saturated chain of hydrocarbon contains only single bonds. The carbon in saturated hydrocarbon are joined to each other with single bond and they are sp3 hybridized. Unsaturated hydrocarbons can have double or triple bonds, the carbon atoms in double bond are sp2 hybridized and that in triple bond are sp.

    The general formula for alkane is CnH2n+2 which is a saturated hydrocarbon.

    Answer to Problem 11.10P

    The given statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    Unsaturated chain of hydrocarbon contains either double bond or triple bond. The carbon in unsaturated hydrocarbon are joined to each other with double bond known as alkene and they are sp2 hybridized while carbon in unsaturated hydrocarbon are joined to each other with triple bond known as alkyne and they are sp hybridized.

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    Chapter 11 Solutions

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
    Ch. 11 - 11-11 Define: Hydrocarbon Alkane Saturated...Ch. 11 - 11-12 Why is it not accurate to describe an...Ch. 11 - 11-13 What is meant by the term line-angle formula...Ch. 11 - Prob. 11.14PCh. 11 - Write the molecular formula for each alkane.Ch. 11 - Answer true or false. Constitutional isomers have...Ch. 11 - Which statements are true about constitutional...Ch. 11 - Prob. 11.18PCh. 11 - Each member of the following set of compounds is...Ch. 11 - Prob. 11.20PCh. 11 - 11-21 In the six following sets, which pairs of...Ch. 11 - Draw line-angle formulas for the nine...Ch. 11 - Answer true or false. The parent name of an alkane...Ch. 11 - Prob. 11.24PCh. 11 - Among the ingredients listed in one commercial...Ch. 11 - Answer true or false. The two major sources of...Ch. 11 - Answer true or false. Cycloalkanes are saturated...Ch. 11 - Prob. 11.28PCh. 11 - Write line-angle formulas for these alkanes and...Ch. 11 - Answer true or false. Conformations have the same...Ch. 11 - The condensed structural formula of butane is...Ch. 11 - 11-32 Calculate the actual C-C-C bond angles in...Ch. 11 - Answer true or false. Cis- and trans-cycloalkanes...Ch. 11 - 11-34 What structural feature of cycloalkanes...Ch. 11 - Is cis-trans isomerism possible in alkanes?Ch. 11 - 11-36 Name and draw structural formulas for the...Ch. 11 - Name and draw structural formulas for the six...Ch. 11 - 11-38 Why is equatorial methylcyclohexane more...Ch. 11 - Prob. 11.39PCh. 11 - Consider a cyclohexane ring substituted with one...Ch. 11 - Answer true or false. Boiling points among alkanes...Ch. 11 - In Problem 11-22, you drew structural formulas for...Ch. 11 - Which unbranched alkane (Table 11-4) has about the...Ch. 11 - 11-44 What generalizations can you make about the...Ch. 11 - 11-45 What generalization can you make about the...Ch. 11 - Suppose that you have samples of hexane and...Ch. 11 - As you can see from Table 11-4, each CH2 group...Ch. 11 - 11-48 How are the boiling points of hydrocarbons...Ch. 11 - Answer true or false. Combustion of alkanes is an...Ch. 11 - 11-50 Write balanced equations for the combustion...Ch. 11 - The heat of combustion of methane, a component of...Ch. 11 - 11-52 Draw structural formulas for these...Ch. 11 - The reaction of chlorine with pentane gives a...Ch. 11 - 11-54 Complete and balance the equation for the...Ch. 11 - Name and draw structural formulas for all pos...Ch. 11 - There are three constitutional isomers with the...Ch. 11 - Answer true or false. Freons are members of a...Ch. 11 - 11-58 (Chemical Connections 11A) How many rings in...Ch. 11 - (Chemical Connections 1 IB) What is an “octane...Ch. 11 - 11-60 (Chemical Connections 11B, Octane has an...Ch. 11 - (Chemical Connections 11B) Ethanol is added to...Ch. 11 - 11-62(Chemical Connections 11C) What are Freons?...Ch. 11 - 11-63 (Chemical Connections 11C) In what way do...Ch. 11 - (Chemical Connections 11C) What are HFCs and...Ch. 11 - Prob. 11.65PCh. 11 - Explain why each of the following is an incorrect...Ch. 11 - Which of the following compounds can exist as...Ch. 11 - Tetradecane, C14H30, is an unbranched alkane with...Ch. 11 - Dodecane, C12H26, is an unbranched alkane Predict...Ch. 11 - Prob. 11.70PCh. 11 - On the left is a representation of the glucose...Ch. 11 - On the left is a representation for...Ch. 11 - As stated in Section 11-9, the wax found in apple...Ch. 11 - Following are structural formulas for dimethyl...

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