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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 11, Problem 11Q
Textbook Problem
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Define what is meant by unimolecular and bimolecular steps. Why are termolecular steps infrequently seen in chemical reactions?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The terms unimolecular and bimolecular steps are to be defined. An explanation regarding the termolecular steps being less frequent in chemical reactions is to be stated.

Concept introduction: The number of atoms, ions or molecules that need to undergo a collision with each other simultaneously for a chemical reaction to take place is termed as the molecularity of the reaction. A reaction requiring the collision of three particles at the same instant is known as a termolecular reaction.

Explanation of Solution

Unimolecular Steps

The steps involving only one reactant are termed as unimolecular steps.

When the rearrangement of a single molecule leads to the formation of one or more products in a chemical reaction it is termed as a unimolecular reaction. The decomposition of NH4NO2 is an example of a unimolecular reaction. The reaction is,

NH4NO2N2+2H2O

Bimolecular Steps

The steps involving two reactants are termed as unimolecular steps.

When the formation of product takes place from the collision between two reactant species, the reaction is termed as a bimolecular reaction

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Chapter 11 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 11 - Why does a catalyst increase the rate of a...Ch. 11 - Define stability from both a kinetic and...Ch. 11 - Describe at least two experiments you could...Ch. 11 - Make a graph of [A] versus time for zero-, first-,...Ch. 11 - How does temperature affect k. the rate constant?...Ch. 11 - Consider the following statements: In general, the...Ch. 11 - For the reaction A + B C, explain at least two...Ch. 11 - A friend of yours states, A balanced equation...Ch. 11 - Provide a conceptual rationale for the differences...Ch. 11 - The rate constant (k) depends on which of the...Ch. 11 - Each of the statements given below is false....Ch. 11 - Define what is meant by unimolecular and...Ch. 11 - The plot below shows the number of collisions with...Ch. 11 - For the reaction O2(g)+2NO(g)2NO2(g) the observed...Ch. 11 - The rate law for a reaction can be determined only...Ch. 11 - Table 11-2 illustrates how the average rate of a...Ch. 11 - The type of rate law for a reaction, either the...Ch. 11 - The initial rate of a reaction doubles as the...Ch. 11 - Hydrogen reacts explosively with oxygen. However,...Ch. 11 - The central idea of the collision model is that...Ch. 11 - Consider the following energy plots for a chemical...Ch. 11 - Enzymes are kinetically important for many of the...Ch. 11 - Would the slope of a ln(k) versus 1/T plot (with...Ch. 11 - Consider the reaction 4PH3(g)P4(g)+6H2(g) If, in a...Ch. 11 - In the Haber process for the production of...Ch. 11 - At 40C, H2O2 (aq) will decompose according to the...Ch. 11 - Consider the general reaction aA+bBcC and the...Ch. 11 - What are the units for each of the following if...Ch. 11 - The rate law for the reaction...Ch. 11 - The reaction 2NO(g)+Cl2(g)2NOCl(g) was studied at...Ch. 11 - The reaction 2I-(aq)+S2O82-(aq)I2(aq)+2SO42-(aq)...Ch. 11 - The decomposition of nitrosyl chloride was...Ch. 11 - The following data were obtained for the gas-phase...Ch. 11 - The reaction I(aq)+OCl(aq)IO(aq)+Cl(aq) was...Ch. 11 - The reaction 2NO(g)+O2(g)2NO2(g) was studied. and...Ch. 11 - The rote of the reaction between hemoglobin (Hb)...Ch. 11 - The following data were obtained for the reaction...Ch. 11 - The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was...Ch. 11 - A certain reaction has the following general form:...Ch. 11 - The rate of the reaction NO2(g)+CO(g)NO(g)+CO2(g)...Ch. 11 - A certain reaction has the following general form:...Ch. 11 - The decomposition of ethanol (C2H5OH) on an...Ch. 11 - At 500 K in the presence of a copper surface,...Ch. 11 - The dimerization of butadiene 2C4H6(g)C8H12(g) was...Ch. 11 - The rate of the reaction O(g)+NO2(g)NO(g)+O2(g)...Ch. 11 - Experimental data for the reaction A2B+C have been...Ch. 11 - Consider the data plotted in Exercise 45 when...Ch. 11 - The reaction AB+C is known to be zero order in A...Ch. 11 - The decomposition of hydrogen iodide on finely...Ch. 11 - A certain first-order reaction is 45.0% complete...Ch. 11 - A first-order reaction is 75.0% complete in 320....Ch. 11 - The rate law for the decomposition of phosphine...Ch. 11 - DDT (molar mass = 354.49 g/mol) was a widely used...Ch. 11 - Consider the following initial rate data for the...Ch. 11 - The rate law for the reaction...Ch. 11 - For the reaction A products, successive...Ch. 11 - Theophylline is a pharmaceutical drug that is...Ch. 11 - You and a coworker have developed a molecule...Ch. 11 - Consider the hypothetical reaction A+B+2C2D+3E...Ch. 11 - Write the rate laws for the following elementary...Ch. 11 - A possible mechanism for the decomposition of...Ch. 11 - A proposed mechanism for a reaction is...Ch. 11 - The mechanism for the gas-phase reaction of...Ch. 11 - For the following reaction profile, indicate a....Ch. 11 - Draw a rough sketch of the energy profile for each...Ch. 11 - The activation energy for the reaction...Ch. 11 - The activation energy for some reaction...Ch. 11 - The rate constant for the gas-phase decomposition...Ch. 11 - The reaction (CH3)3CBr+OH(CH3)3COH+Br in a certain...Ch. 11 - The activation energy for the decomposition of...Ch. 11 - A first-order reaction has rate constants of 4.6 ...Ch. 11 - A certain reaction has an activation energy of...Ch. 11 - Chemists commonly use a rule of thumb that an...Ch. 11 - Which of the following reactions would you expect...Ch. 11 - One reason suggested for the instability of long...Ch. 11 - One mechanism for the destruction of ozone in the...Ch. 11 - One of the concerns about the use of Freons is...Ch. 11 - Assuming that the mechanism for the hydrogenation...Ch. 11 - The decomposition of NH3 to N2 and H2 was studied...Ch. 11 - The decomposition of many substances on the...Ch. 11 - For enzyme-catalyzed reactions that follow the...Ch. 11 - A popular chemical demonstration is the magic...Ch. 11 - The activation energy for a reaction is changed...Ch. 11 - Consider the following representation of the...Ch. 11 - The reaction H2SeO3(aq) + 6I-(aq) + 4H+(aq) Se(s)...Ch. 11 - Consider two reaction vessels, one containing A...Ch. 11 - Sulfuryl chloride (SO2Cl2) decomposes to sulfur...Ch. 11 - For the reaction 2N2O5(g)4NO2(g)+O2(g) the...Ch. 11 - Experimental values for the temperature dependence...Ch. 11 - Cobra venom helps the snake secure food by binding...Ch. 11 - Iodomethane (CH3I) is a commonly used reagent in...Ch. 11 - Experiments during a recent summer on a number of...Ch. 11 - The activation energy of a certain uncatalyzed...Ch. 11 - Consider the reaction 3A+B+CD+E where the rate law...Ch. 11 - The thiosulfate ion (S2O32) is oxidized by iodine...Ch. 11 - The reaction A(aq)+B(aq)products(aq) was studied,...Ch. 11 - A certain substance, initially present at 0.0800...Ch. 11 - A reaction of the form aAProducts gives a plot of...Ch. 11 - A certain reaction has the form aAProducts At a...Ch. 11 - Which of the following statement(s) is( are) true?...Ch. 11 - Consider the hypothetical reaction A2(g) + B2(g) ...Ch. 11 - Experiments have shown that the average frequency...Ch. 11 - Consider a reaction of the type aA products, in...Ch. 11 - A study was made of the effect of the hydroxide...Ch. 11 - Two isomers (A and B) of a given compound dimerize...Ch. 11 - The reaction NO(g)+O3NO2(g)+O2(g) was studied by...Ch. 11 - Most reactions occur by a series of steps. The...Ch. 11 - You are studying the kinetics of the reaction...Ch. 11 - The decomposition of NO2(g) occurs by the...Ch. 11 - The following data were collected in two studies...Ch. 11 - Consider the following hypothetical data collected...Ch. 11 - Consider the hypothetical reaction A+B+2C2D+3E In...Ch. 11 - Hydrogen peroxide and the iodide ion react in...Ch. 11 - Sulfuryl chloride undergoes first-order...Ch. 11 - Upon dissolving InCl(s) in HCl, In+(aq) undergoes...Ch. 11 - The decomposition of iodoethane in the gas phase...Ch. 11 - Consider the following reaction: CH3X+YCH3Y+X At...

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