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Human Heredity: Principles and Iss...

11th Edition
Michael Cummings
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305251052

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Human Heredity: Principles and Iss...

11th Edition
Michael Cummings
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305251052
Chapter 11, Problem 11QP
Textbook Problem
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Two types of mutations discussed in this chapter are (1) nucleotide changes and (2) unstable genome regions that undergo dynamic changes. Describe each type of mutation.

Summary Introduction

To explain: The two types of mutation in which changes occur in nucleotide and unstable genome regions.

Introduction: The mutation is the type of change in the gene sequence of the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). This change can occur due to a single nucleotide change or due to shifting of unstable genome regions of the DNA. Mutation is the primary cause of cancer in human beings.

Explanation of Solution

The explanation related to the two types of mutation are as follows:

  • Mutation due to nucleotide change:

    Single nucleotide mutations lead to missense, nonsense, and sense mutations. Missense mutation changes a single amino acid in the protein chain. Nonsense mutation leads to early discontinuation of translation and forms a shorter length protein. Sense mutation results in the formation of longer protein as compared with the normal protein. If the nucleotide change occurs in more than one nucleotide, it will lead to allelic expansion. Generally, this type of mutation involves trinucleotide repeats, which are present several times in an allele...

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