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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

What intermolecular force(s) must be overcome to perform the following?

  1. (a) melt ice
  2. (b) sublime solid I2
  3. (c) convert liquid NH3 to NH3 vapor

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Identify the intermolecular forces that must be overcome to perform the following statement of melt ice.

Concept Introduction:

London dispersion force also called an induced dipole-induced dipole attraction is a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles.

Dipole-dipole interaction results when two dipolar molecules interact with each other through space, there occurs a partially negative charge of one of the polar molecules is attracted to the partially positive charge of the second polar molecule.

Ion-dipole interaction results of an electrostatic interaction between a charged ion and a molecule that has a dipole.

A hydrogen bonding is partially an electrostatic attraction between H atom which is bonded to more electronegative atom such as N, O, orF and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electron

Answer

In ice the water molecules are held together by hydrogen bonding network to from a three dimensional lattice.

Explanation

In water molecules the hydrogen bond in ice are linear and have strong directional property, this directionality indicate that hydrogen bonds in ice are as strong as a covalent bond. During melting few of these hydrogen bonds are melting to from water.

In water a H2O molecules from four hydrogen bonds with neighboring water molecules, so melting ice involves the breaking of hydrogen bonds, in addition to dispersion interaction. Therefore the intramolecular forces that have to overcome during the melting ice are dispersion, dipole-dipole interaction and hydrogen bond.

(b).

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Identify the intermolecular forces that must be overcome to perform the following statement of sublime solid of iodine. 

Concept Introduction:

London dispersion force also called an induced dipole-induced dipole attraction is a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles.

Dipole-dipole interaction results when two dipolar molecules interact with each other through space, there occurs a partially negative charge of one of the polar molecules is attracted to the partially positive charge of the second polar molecule.

Ion-dipole interaction results of an electrostatic interaction between a charged ion and a molecule that has a dipole.

A hydrogen bonding is partially an electrostatic attraction between H atom which is bonded to more electronegative atom such as N, O, orF and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electron

Answer

Iodine molecules are non-polar, only dispersion forces must be overcome.

Explanation

They sublime because though there are covalent bonds within molecule holding two iodine atoms together.

From this molecule Van der Waal’s forces are very weak interactions between molecules of a substance hence the iodine molecules easily escape from the solid structure easily.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Identify the intermolecular forces that must be overcome to perform the following statement of convert liquid NH3 to NH3 vapour. 

Concept Introduction:

London dispersion force also called an induced dipole-induced dipole attraction is a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles.

Dipole-dipole interaction results when two dipolar molecules interact with each other through space, there occurs a partially negative charge of one of the polar molecules is attracted to the partially positive charge of the second polar molecule.

Ion-dipole interaction results of an electrostatic interaction between a charged ion and a molecule that has a dipole.

A hydrogen bonding is partially an electrostatic attraction between H atom which is bonded to more electronegative atom such as N, O, orF and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electron

Answer

Ammonia vaporization having hydrogen bonding was occurred.

Explanation

Ammonia is a polar molecule since the nitrogen atom is more electronegative than hydrogen, and the only intermolecular forces present are London dispersion force was occurred.

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