Essentials of Statistics for the B...

8th Edition
Frederick J Gravetter + 1 other
ISBN: 9781133956570



Essentials of Statistics for the B...

8th Edition
Frederick J Gravetter + 1 other
ISBN: 9781133956570
Textbook Problem

At the Olympic level of competition, even the smallest factors can make the difference between winning and losing. For example, Pelton (1983) has shown that Olympic marksmen shoot much better if they fire between heartbeats, rather than squeezing the trigger during a heartbeat. The small vibration caused by a heartbeat seems to be sufficient to affect the marksman’s aim. The following hypothetical data demonstrate this phenomenon. A sample of n = 8 Olympic marksmen fires a series of rounds while a researcher records heartbeat. For each marksman, a score is recorded for shots fired during heartbeats and for shots fired between heartbeats. Do these data indicate a significant difference? Test with α = .05.


To determine

Whether there is any difference between Olympic batsman shoot scores during heart beats and between heart beats.


Given info:

The data represents the measurements of during heartbeat and between heartbeats for the 8 participants.


Calculate the difference D and DD2 is obtained below:

ParticipantsWhite backgroundRed backgroundDD2
Total  24108

The value of MD is,


Thus, the value of MD is 3.

The value of SS is,


Thus, the value of SS is 36

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