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Essentials of Statistics for the B...

8th Edition
Frederick J Gravetter + 1 other
ISBN: 9781133956570

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Essentials of Statistics for the B...

8th Edition
Frederick J Gravetter + 1 other
ISBN: 9781133956570
Textbook Problem

Example 11.1 in this chapter presented a repeated-measures research study demonstrating that swearing can help reduce ratings of pain (Stephens, Atkins, & Kingston, 2009). In the study, each participant was asked to plunge a hand into icy water and keep it there as long as the pain would allow. In one condition, the participants repeated their favorite curse words while their hands were in the water. In the other condition, the participants repeated a neutral word. In addition to lowering the participants' perception of pain, swearing also increased the amount of time that they were able to tolerate the pain. Data similar to the results obtained in the study are shown in the following table.

a. Do these data indicate a significant difference in pain tolerance between the two conditions? Use a two-tailed lest with α = .05.

b. Compute r2, the percentage of variance accounted for, to measure the size of the treatment effect.

c. Write a sentence demonstrating how the results of the hypothesis test and the measure of effect size would appear in a research report.

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a.

To determine

To check: Whether the data indicate a significant difference in pain tolerance between the two conditions.

Explanation

Given info:

Repeated-measures study is used.

Scores of n=9 participants when participants used neutral word and swearing are used.

Calculation:

For the repeated-measures study,

Null Hypothesis:

There is no significant difference between two sets of scores.

That is μD=0.

Alternate Hypothesis:

There is significant difference between two sets of scores.

That is μD0.

Degree of freedom is:

df=n1=101=9

With α=0.05 and df=9 critical value is CV=2.26.

Now, compute a column of difference and D2 as:

Participant Swearing Neutral Difference D D2
A 94 59 35 1225
B 70 61 9 81
C 52 47 5 25
D 83 60 23 529
E 46 35 11 121
F 117 92 25 625
G 69 53 16 256
H 39 30 9 81
I 51 56 -5 25
J 73 61 2 4

The formula for mean is,

MD=Dn

b.

To determine

To find: The r2 value.

c.

To determine

To Write: The output of the study as it would appear in the report

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