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Refer to Figure 11.8 to answer the following questions: (a) Of the three hydrogen halides (HX), which has the largest total intermolecular force? (b) Why are the dispersion forces greater for HI than for HCl? (c) Why are the dipole-dipole forces greater for HCl than for HI? (d) Of the seven molecules in Figure 11.8, which involves the largest dispersion forces? Explain why this is reasonable.

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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 11, Problem 51SCQ
Textbook Problem
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Refer to Figure 11.8 to answer the following questions:

  1. (a) Of the three hydrogen halides (HX), which has the largest total intermolecular force?
  2. (b) Why are the dispersion forces greater for HI than for HCl?
  3. (c) Why are the dipole-dipole forces greater for HCl than for HI?
  4. (d) Of the seven molecules in Figure 11.8, which involves the largest dispersion forces? Explain why this is reasonable.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Among the given hydrogen halide, the one with largest  total intermolecular forces has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

London dispersion force also called an induced dipole-induced dipole attraction is a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles.

Dipole-dipole interaction results when two dipolar molecules interact with each other through space, there occurs a partially negative charge of one of the polar molecules is attracted to the partially positive charge of the second polar molecule.

Ion-dipole interaction results of an electrostatic interaction between a charged ion and a molecule that has a dipole.

A hydrogen bonding is partially an electrostatic attraction between H atom which is bonded to more electronegative atom such as N, O, orF and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electron

Explanation of Solution

Fluorine is small and thus the outer shell of electrons is more affected by the positive nucleus and bound more tightly. This tight bonding of electrons makes it more electronegative because of grater electron density bound to the nucleus-the more dens...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Reason for the dispersion forces greater for HI than HCl has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

London dispersion force also called an induced dipole-induced dipole attraction is a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles.

Dipole-dipole interaction results when two dipolar molecules interact with each other through space, there occurs a partially negative charge of one of the polar molecules is attracted to the partially positive charge of the second polar molecule.

Ion-dipole interaction results of an electrostatic interaction between a charged ion and a molecule that has a dipole.

A hydrogen bonding is partially an electrostatic attraction between H atom which is bonded to more electronegative atom such as N, O, orF and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electron

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Reason for dipole-dipole forces greater for HCl than for HI has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

London dispersion force also called an induced dipole-induced dipole attraction is a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles.

Dipole-dipole interaction results when two dipolar molecules interact with each other through space, there occurs a partially negative charge of one of the polar molecules is attracted to the partially positive charge of the second polar molecule.

Ion-dipole interaction results of an electrostatic interaction between a charged ion and a molecule that has a dipole.

A hydrogen bonding is partially an electrostatic attraction between H atom which is bonded to more electronegative atom such as N, O, orF and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electron

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Hydrogen halide that has largest dispersion forces has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

London dispersion force also called an induced dipole-induced dipole attraction is a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles.

Dipole-dipole interaction results when two dipolar molecules interact with each other through space, there occurs a partially negative charge of one of the polar molecules is attracted to the partially positive charge of the second polar molecule.

Ion-dipole interaction results of an electrostatic interaction between a charged ion and a molecule that has a dipole.

A hydrogen bonding is partially an electrostatic attraction between H atom which is bonded to more electronegative atom such as N, O, orF and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electron

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Chapter 11 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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