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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

At the Fred Hutchison Cancer Research Center in Seattle it was discovered that mice can be put into a state of suspended animation by applying a low dose of hydrogen sulfide, H2S. The breathing rate of the mice fell from 120 to 10 breaths per minute and their temperature fell to just 2 °C above ambient temperature. Six hours later the mice were revived and seemed to show no negative effects.

  1. (a) Hydrogen sulfide is a gas at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure whereas water is a liquid with a low vapor pressure under the same conditions. Explain this observation.
  2. (b) The H2S gas delivered to the mice had a concentration of 80 ppm. (A concentration of 1 ppm is 1 part per million, or one molecule in every 1 million molecules.) If you deliver 1.0 L of gas (a mixture of O2, N2, and H2S) at a total pressure of 725 mm Hg at a temperature of 22 °C, what is the partial pressure of the H2S gas?
  3. (c) Hydrogen sulfide can be converted to sulfuric acid. If 5.2 L of H2S gas at 130 mm Hg pressure and 25 °C is allowed to react with O2 gas, how many liters of O2 gas, also at 130 mm Hg pressure and 25 °C, are required for complete reaction? Assume the following reaction occurs.

H2S(g) + 2 O2(g) → H2SO4()

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The reason for H2S being a gas at normal pressure and water being a liquid has to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

  • Partial pressure: The pressure of each gas in a mixture of gases is the partial pressure.
  • Dalton’s law of partial pressure: The total pressure of gases in a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressure of each gas in the mixture
  • Mole fraction: Quantity which defines the number of moles of a substance in a mixture divided by the total number of moles of all substances present.

    xa=nantotal

  • pa=xa×Ptotal

    Partial pressure of a gas in the mixture of gases is the product of mole fraction of the gas and the total pressure.

Explanation

The major reason behind this observation is hydrogen bonding The electronegativity difference between hydrogen and oxygen is very large. So the intermolecular force of attraction is high. But the electronegativity difference between hydrogen and sulphur is comparatively low.

Comparing H2S and water , energy

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The partial pressure of H2S has to determined.

Concept Introduction:

  • Partial pressure: The pressure of each gas in a mixture of gases is the partial pressure.
  • Dalton’s law of partial pressure: The total pressure of gases in a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressure of each gas in the mixture
  • Mole fraction: Quantity which defines the number of moles of a substance in a mixture divided by the total number of moles of all substances present.

    xa=nantotal

  • pa=xa×Ptotal

    Partial pressure of a gas in the mixture of gases is the product of mole fraction of the gas and the total pressure.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The amount of oxygen required to convert the given amount of H2S to H2SO4 has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

  • Partial pressure: The pressure of each gas in a mixture of gases is the partial pressure.
  • Dalton’s law of partial pressure: The total pressure of gases in a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressure of each gas in the mixture
  • Mole fraction: Quantity which defines the number of moles of a substance in a mixture divided by the total number of moles of all substances present.

    xa=nantotal

  • pa=xa×Ptotal

    Partial pressure of a gas in the mixture of gases is the product of mole fraction of the gas and the total pressure.

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