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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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Why do we believe that the valence electrons of calcium and potassium reside in the 4s orbital rather than in the 3d orbital?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

To interpret the reason of 4s as valence orbital for calcium and potassium.

Concept Introduction:

In an atom, electrons fill according to energy of the energy levels. The sequence of energy levels with electrons for an element is called as electronic configuration.

Explanation

The Aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom electron fills atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. The energy of 4s level is less than 3d therefore electrons first fill in 4s level.

The order of energy levels for an element is as given below:

1s< 2s < 2p< 3s< 3p< 4s < 3d

Hence 4s orbital has lesser energy than 3d therefore electrons first fill in 4s than only move to 3d...

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