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Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097
Textbook Problem

Explain the following on the basis of the behavior of atoms and/or ions.

    a. Cooking with water is faster in a pressure cooker than in an open pan.

    b. Salt is used on icy roads.

    c. Melted sea ice from the Arctic Ocean produces fresh water.

    d. CO2(s) (dry ice) does not have a normal boiling point under normal atmospheric conditions, even though CO2 is a liquid in fire extinguishers.

    e. Adding a solute to a solvent extends the liquid phase over a larger temperature range.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The explanation for the statements has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

Colligative properties are the properties of the solution that is depending only on the concentration of the solute present and it is independent of the nature of the solute.

The colligative properties are,

  • Depression in the freezing point
  • Elevation of boiling-point
  • Osmotic pressure
  • Lowering of vapor pressure
Explanation

(a)

When the vapor pressure is same as the pressure above the water, then the boiling of water takes places. In an open pan pressure is same as the atmospheric pressure.  But inside a pressure cooker the pressure will be more.  Hence, the boiling of water occurs at a higher temperature.  The higher the temperature of cooking, the faster will be the cooking time.

(b)

The dissolution of salt in water results in formation of solution that has lower freezing point than that of pure water ( ΔTf=Kfm ).  When salt dissolved in water it is getting separated to its constituent ions, sodium ion and chloride ions.  These ions disperse the water molecule and hence, the solid structure is broken. The ice melts if the freezing point is lowered and this won’t work if the freezing point of the salt solution is greater than the ambient temperature.

(c)

The melt of frozen sea ice is pure water because when the freezing of water is from a solution, it freezes as pure water and concentrated salt solution is left

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