Chapter 11.3, Problem 1LCA

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8th Edition

Frederick J Gravetter + 1 other

ISBN: 9781133956570

Textbook Problem

A researcher is investigating the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for chronic back pain. A sample of *n* = 4 participants is obtained from a pain clinic. Each individual ranks the current level of pain and then begins a 6-week program of acupuncture treatment. At the end of the program, the pain level is rated again and the researcher records the amount of difference between the two ratings. For this sample, pain level decreased by an average of *M* = 4.5 points with *SS* = 27.

a. Are the data sufficient to conclude that acupuncture has a significant effect on back pain? Use a two-tailed test with

b. Can you conclude that acupuncture significantly reduces back pain? Use a one-tailed test with

**a.**

To determine

**To find:** Whether or not the acupuncture has significant effect on back pain by using two-tailed test at

Explanation

**Given info:**

A sample of 4 individuals is selected from a population. The sample mean and sum of squared difference (SS) is found to be 4.5 and 27 respectively. Two-tailed hypothesis test using

**Calculations:**

Step 1: Null Hypothesis is

Step 2: For a sample of

Step 3: t-statistics can be calculated using formula:

First, calculate sample standard deviation, s, using formula:

Substitute

**b.**

To determine

**To find:** Whether or not the acupuncture has significant effect on backpain for one-tailed test at

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