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General, Organic, and Biological C...

7th Edition
H. Stephen Stoker
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285853918

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

General, Organic, and Biological C...

7th Edition
H. Stephen Stoker
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285853918
Chapter 11.3, Problem 1QQ
Textbook Problem
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Which of the following is not a balanced nuclear equation?

  1. a. S 50 121 n β 1 0 + S 51 121 b
  2. b. U 92 238 α 2 4 + T 90 232 h
  3. c. B 4 10 e B 5 10 + β 1 0
  4. d. no correct response

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The nuclear equation that is not balanced has to be chosen from the given options.

Concept Introduction:

If the reaction occurs in the nucleus of an atom then it is known as nuclear reaction.  These reactions are not considered as ordinary chemical reactions because the electrons do not take part in reaction while the particle inside the nucleus does.  Isotope and nuclide are almost similar terms.  Isotopes refer to the same element that has different mass number while nuclide refers to atoms of same or different elements with specific atomic number and mass number.

This nuclear reaction can be represented by nuclear equation.  This is not a normal chemical equation.  Nuclear equation considers the mass number and atomic number of the reactants and products.  Unstable nucleus tends to emit radiation spontaneously.  During this process the nuclide is transformed into nuclide of another element.  Parent nuclide is the one which undergoes the radioactive decay.  Daughter nuclide is the one that is formed from parent nuclide after radioactive decay.

The radioactive decay can take place by emission of alpha particle, beta particle or gamma ray emission.  Alpha particle decay is a process in which an alpha particle is emitted.  This results in the formation of nuclide of different element that has atomic number that is 2 less and mass number that is 4 less than the original nucleus.  Beta particle decay is a process in which a beta particle is emitted.  This produces a nuclide of different element similar to that of alpha particle decay.  The mass number is same as that of parent nuclide while the atomic number increases by 1 unit.  Gamma ray emission is a process in which the unstable nucleus emits gamma ray.  This occurs along with alpha or beta particle emission.  The gamma rays are not shown in the nuclear equation because they do not affect balancing the nuclear equation.

Explanation of Solution

Reason for correct option:

In a balanced nuclear equation the sum of subscripts on both sides must be equal and the sum of superscripts on both sides of the equation must be equal.  Considering the nuclear equation,

U92238 α24 + T90232h

The sum of subscripts on both sides is equal.  The sum of superscripts on both sides is not equal.  As the sum of superscripts on both sides are not equal, the given equation is a not a balanced nuclear equation.  Hence, option (a) is an incorrect one.

Hence, option (b) is the correct one.

Reason for incorrect options:

The equation present in option (a) is,

S50121n

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Chapter 11 Solutions

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry
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