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Discrete Mathematics With ApplicationsIn each of 21 and 22, a sequence is specified by a recurr ence relation and initial conditions. In each case, (a) use iteration to guess an explicit formula for the sequence; (b) use strong mathematical induction to confirm the corr ectness of the formula you obtained in part (a). 21. a k = a ⌊ k / 2 ⌋ + 2 , for each integer k ≥ 2 a 1 = 1BuyFind*arrow_forward*

5th Edition

EPP + 1 other

Publisher: Cengage Learning,

ISBN: 9781337694193

Chapter 11.4, Problem 21ES

Textbook Problem

In each of 21 and 22, a sequence is specified by a recurr ence relation and initial conditions. In each case, (a) use iteration to guess an explicit formula for the sequence; (b) use strong mathematical induction to confirm the corr ectness of the formula you obtained in part (a).

21.

Discrete Mathematics With Applications

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Ch. 11.1 - If f is a real-valued function of a real variable,...Ch. 11.1 - A point (x,y) lies on the graph of a real-valued...Ch. 11.1 - If a is any nonnegative real number, then the...Ch. 11.1 - Given a function f:RR and a real number M, the...Ch. 11.1 - Given a function f:RR , to prove that f is...Ch. 11.1 - Given a function f:RR , to prove that f is...Ch. 11.1 - The graph of a function f is shown below. a. Is...Ch. 11.1 - The graph of a function g is shown below. a. Is...Ch. 11.1 - Sketch the graphs of the power functions p1/3and...Ch. 11.1 - Sketch the graphs of the power functions p3 and p4...

Ch. 11.1 - Sketch the graphs of y=2x and y=2x for each real...Ch. 11.1 - Sketch a graph for each of the functions defined...Ch. 11.1 - Sketch a graph for each of the functions defined...Ch. 11.1 - Sketch a graph for each of the functions defined...Ch. 11.1 - Sketch a graph for each of the functions defined...Ch. 11.1 - In each of 10—13 a function is defined on a set of...Ch. 11.1 - In each of 10—13 a function is defined on a set of...Ch. 11.1 - In each of 10—13 a function is defined on a set of...Ch. 11.1 - In each of 10—13 a function is defined on a set of...Ch. 11.1 - The graph of a function f is shown below. Find the...Ch. 11.1 - Show that the function f:RR defined by the formula...Ch. 11.1 - Show that the function g:RR defined by the formula...Ch. 11.1 - Let h be the function from R to R defined by the...Ch. 11.1 - Let k:RR be the function defined by the formula...Ch. 11.1 - Show that if a function f:RRis increasing, then f...Ch. 11.1 - Given real-valued functions f and g with the same...Ch. 11.1 - a. Let m be any positive integer, and define...Ch. 11.1 - Let f be the function whose graph follows. Sketch...Ch. 11.1 - Let h be the function whose graph is shown below....Ch. 11.1 - Let f be a real-valued function of a real...Ch. 11.1 - Let f be a real-valued function of a real...Ch. 11.1 - Let f be a real-valued function of a real...Ch. 11.1 - In 27 and 28, functions f and g are defined. In...Ch. 11.1 - In 27 and 28, functions f and g are defined. In...Ch. 11.2 - A sentence of the form Ag(n)f(n) for every na...Ch. 11.2 - A sentence of the tirm “ 0f(n)Bg(n) for every nb ”...Ch. 11.2 - A sentence of the form “ Ag(n)f(n)Bg(n)for every...Ch. 11.2 - When n1,n n2 and n2 n5__________.Ch. 11.2 - According to the theorem on polynomial orders, if...Ch. 11.2 - If n is a positive integer, then 1+2+3++n has...Ch. 11.2 - The following is a formal definition for ...Ch. 11.2 - The following is a formal definition for...Ch. 11.2 - The following is a formal definition for ...Ch. 11.2 - In 4—9, express each statement using -, O-, or ...Ch. 11.2 - In 4—9, express each statement using -, O-, or ...Ch. 11.2 - In 4—9, express each statement using -, O-, or ...Ch. 11.2 - In 4—9, express each statement using -, O-, or ...Ch. 11.2 - In 4—9, express each statement using -, O-, or ...Ch. 11.2 - In 4—9, express each statement using -, O-, or ...Ch. 11.2 - a. Show that for any integer n1,02n2+15n+421n2 ....Ch. 11.2 - a. Show that for any integer n1,023n4+8n2+4n35n4 ....Ch. 11.2 - a. Show that for any integer n1,07n3+10n2+320n3 ....Ch. 11.2 - Use the definition of -notation to show that...Ch. 11.2 - Use the definition of -notation to show that...Ch. 11.2 - Use the definition of -notation to show that...Ch. 11.2 - Use the definition of -notation to show that...Ch. 11.2 - Use the definition of -notation to show that n2is...Ch. 11.2 - Prove Theorem 11.2.7(b): If f and g are...Ch. 11.2 - Prove Theorem 11.2.1(b): If f and g are...Ch. 11.2 - Without using Theorem 11.2.4 prove that n5 is not...Ch. 11.2 - Prove Theorem 11.2.4: If f is a real-valued...Ch. 11.2 - a. Use one of the methods of Example 11.2.4 to...Ch. 11.2 - a. Use one of the methods of Example 11.2.4 to...Ch. 11.2 - a. Use one of the methods of Example 11.2.4 to...Ch. 11.2 - Suppose P(n)=amnm+am1nm1++a2n2+a1n+a0 , where all...Ch. 11.2 - Use the theorem on polynomial orders to prove each...Ch. 11.2 - Use the theorem on polynomial orders to prove each...Ch. 11.2 - Use the theorem on polynomial orders to prove each...Ch. 11.2 - Use the theorem on polynomial orders to prove each...Ch. 11.2 - Use the theorem on polynomial orders to prove each...Ch. 11.2 - Use the theorem on polynomial orders to prove each...Ch. 11.2 - Prove each of the statements in 32—39. Use the...Ch. 11.2 - Prove each of the statements in 32—39. Use the...Ch. 11.2 - Prove each of the statements in 32—39. Use the...Ch. 11.2 - Prove each of the statements in 32—39. Use the...Ch. 11.2 - Prove each of the statements in 32—39. Use the...Ch. 11.2 - Prove each of the statements in 32—39. Use the...Ch. 11.2 - Prove each of the statements in 32—39. Use the...Ch. 11.2 - Prove each of the statements in 32—39. Use the...Ch. 11.2 - a. Prove: If c is a positive real number and if f...Ch. 11.2 - Prove: If c is a positive real number and...Ch. 11.2 - What can you say about a function f with the...Ch. 11.2 - Use Theorems 11.2.5-11.2.9 and the results of...Ch. 11.2 - Use Theorems 11.2.5-11.2.9 and the results of...Ch. 11.2 - Use Theorems 11.2.5-11.2.9 and the results of...Ch. 11.2 - a. Use mathematical induction to prove that if n...Ch. 11.2 - a. Let x be any positive real number. Use...Ch. 11.2 - Prove Theorem 11.2.6(b): If f and g are...Ch. 11.2 - Prove Theorem 11.2.7(a): If f is a real-valued...Ch. 11.2 - Prove Theorem 11.2.8: a. Let f and g be...Ch. 11.2 - Prove Theorem 11.2.9: a. Let f1,f2 , and g be...Ch. 11.3 - When an algorithm segment contains a nested...Ch. 11.3 - In the worst case for an input array of length n,...Ch. 11.3 - The worst-case order of the insertion sort...Ch. 11.3 - Suppose a computer takes 1 nanosecond ( =109...Ch. 11.3 - Suppose an algorithm requires cn2operations when...Ch. 11.3 - Suppose an algorithm requires cn3operations when...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 4—5 explore the fact that for relatively...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 4—5 explore the fact that for relatively...Ch. 11.3 - For each of the algorithm segments in 6—19, assume...Ch. 11.3 - For each of the algorithm segments in 6—19, assume...Ch. 11.3 - For each of the algorithm segments in 6—19, assume...Ch. 11.3 - For each of the algorithm segments in 6—19, assume...Ch. 11.3 - For each of the algorithm segments in 6—19, assume...Ch. 11.3 - For each of the algorithm segments in 6—19, assume...Ch. 11.3 - For each of the algorithm segments in 6—19, assume...Ch. 11.3 - For each of the algorithm segments in 6—19, assume...Ch. 11.3 - For each of the algorithm segments in 6—19, assume...Ch. 11.3 - For each of the algorithm segments in 6—19, assume...Ch. 11.3 - For each of the algorithm segments in 6—19, assume...Ch. 11.3 - For each of the algorithm segments in 6—19, assume...Ch. 11.3 - For each of the algorithm segments in 6—19, assume...Ch. 11.3 - For each of the algorithm segments in 6—19, assume...Ch. 11.3 - Construct a table showing the result of each step...Ch. 11.3 - Construct a table showing the result of each step...Ch. 11.3 - Construct a trace table showing the action of...Ch. 11.3 - Construct a trace table showing the action of...Ch. 11.3 - How many comparisons between values of a[j] and x...Ch. 11.3 - How many comparisons between values of a[j] and x...Ch. 11.3 - According to Example 11.3.6. the maximum number of...Ch. 11.3 - Consider the recurrence relation that arose in...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 28—35 refer to selection sort, which is...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 28—35 refer to selection sort, which is...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 28—35 refer to selection sort, which is...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 28—35 refer to selection sort, which is...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 28—35 refer to selection sort, which is...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 28—35 refer to selection sort, which is...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 28—35 refer to selection sort, which is...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 28—35 refer to selection sort, which is...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 36—39 refer to the following algorithm...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 36—39 refer to the following algorithm...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 36—39 refer to the following algorithm...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 36—39 refer to the following algorithm...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 40—43 refer to another algorithm, known...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 40—43 refer to another algorithm, known...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 40—43 refer to another algorithm, known...Ch. 11.3 - Exercises 40—43 refer to another algorithm, known...Ch. 11.4 - The domain of any exponential function is , and...Ch. 11.4 - The domain of any logarithmic function is and its...Ch. 11.4 - If k is an integer and 2kx2k+1 then...Ch. 11.4 - If b is a real number with b1 , then there is a...Ch. 11.4 - If n is a positive integer, then 1+12+13++1nhas...Ch. 11.4 - Graph each function defined in 1-8. 1. f(x)=3x for...Ch. 11.4 - Graph each function defined in 1—8. 2. g(x)=(13)x...Ch. 11.4 - Graph each function defined in 1—8. 3. h(x)=log10x...Ch. 11.4 - Graph each function defined in 1—8. 4. k(x)=log2x...Ch. 11.4 - Graph each function defined in 1—8. 5. F(x)=log2x...Ch. 11.4 - Graph each function defined in 1—8. 6. G(x)=log2x...Ch. 11.4 - Graph each function defined in 1—8. 7. H(x)=xlog2x...Ch. 11.4 - Graph each function defined in 1—8. 8....Ch. 11.4 - The scale of the graph shown in Figure 11.4.1 is...Ch. 11.4 - a. Use the definition of logarithm to show that...Ch. 11.4 - Let b1 . a. Use the fact that u=logbvv=bu to show...Ch. 11.4 - Give a graphical interpretation for property...Ch. 11.4 - Suppose a positive real number x satisfies the...Ch. 11.4 - a. Prove that if x is a positive real number and k...Ch. 11.4 - If n is an odd integer and n1 ,is log2(n1)=log2(n)...Ch. 11.4 - If, n is an odd integer and n1 , is...Ch. 11.4 - If n is an odd integer and n1 , is...Ch. 11.4 - In 18 and 19, indicate how many binary digits are...Ch. 11.4 - In 18 and 19, indicate how many binary digits are...Ch. 11.4 - It was shown in the text that the number of binary...Ch. 11.4 - In each of 21 and 22, a sequence is specified by a...Ch. 11.4 - In each of 21 and 22, a sequence is specified by a...Ch. 11.4 - Define a sequence c1,c2,c3,recursively as follows:...Ch. 11.4 - Use strong mathematical induction to show that for...Ch. 11.4 - Exercises 25 and 26 refer to properties 11.4.9 and...Ch. 11.4 - Exercises 25 and 26 refer to properties 11.4.9 and...Ch. 11.4 - Use Theorems 11.2.7-11.2.9 and properties 11.4.11,...Ch. 11.4 - Use Theorems 11.2.7-11.2.9 and properties 11.4.11,...Ch. 11.4 - Use Theorems 11.2.7—11.2.9 and properties 11.4.11,...Ch. 11.4 - Use Theorems 11.2.7—11.2.9 and properties 11.4.11,...Ch. 11.4 - Show that 4n is not O(2n) .Ch. 11.4 - Prove each of the statements in 32—37, assuming n...Ch. 11.4 - Prove each of the statements in 32—37, assuming n...Ch. 11.4 - Prove each of the statements in 32—37, assuming n...Ch. 11.4 - Prove each of the statements in 32—37, assuming n...Ch. 11.4 - Prove each of the statements in 32—37, assuming n...Ch. 11.4 - Prove each of the statements in 32—37, assuming n...Ch. 11.4 - Quantities of the form k1n+k2nlognfor positive...Ch. 11.4 - Calculate the values of the harmonic sums...Ch. 11.4 - Use part (d) of Example 11.4.7 to show that...Ch. 11.4 - Show that log2n is (log2n) .Ch. 11.4 - Show that log2n is (log2n) .Ch. 11.4 - Prove by mathematical induction that n10n for...Ch. 11.4 - Prove by mathematical induction that log2nn for...Ch. 11.4 - Show that if n is a variable that takes positive...Ch. 11.4 - Let n be a variable that takes positive integer...Ch. 11.4 - For each positive real number u,log2uuUse this...Ch. 11.4 - Use the result of exercise 47 above to prove the...Ch. 11.4 - Exercises 49 and 50 use L’Hôpital’s rule from...Ch. 11.4 - Exercises 49 and 50 use L’Hôpital’s rule from...Ch. 11.4 - Complete the proof in Example 11.4.4.Ch. 11.5 - To solve a problem using a divide-and-conquer...Ch. 11.5 - To search an array using the binary search...Ch. 11.5 - The worst-case order of the binary search...Ch. 11.5 - To sort an array using the merge sort algorithm,...Ch. 11.5 - The worst-case order of the merge sort algorithm...Ch. 11.5 - Use the facts that log2103.32 and that for each...Ch. 11.5 - Suppose an algorithm requires clog2n operations...Ch. 11.5 - Exercises 3 and 4 illustrate that for relatively...Ch. 11.5 - Exercises 3 and 4 illustrate that for relatively...Ch. 11.5 - In 5 and 6, trace the action of the binary search...Ch. 11.5 - In 5 and 6, trace the action of the binary search...Ch. 11.5 - Suppose bot and top are positive integers with...Ch. 11.5 - Exercises 8—11 refer to the following algorithm...Ch. 11.5 - Exercises 8—11 refer to the following algorithm...Ch. 11.5 - Exercises 8—11 refer to the following algorithm...Ch. 11.5 - Exercises 8—11 refer to the following algorithm...Ch. 11.5 - Exercises 12—15 refer to the following algorithm...Ch. 11.5 - Exercises 12—15 refer to the following algorithm...Ch. 11.5 - Exercises 12—15 refer to the following algorithm...Ch. 11.5 - Exercises 12—15 refer to the following algorithm...Ch. 11.5 - Complete the proof of case 2 of the strong...Ch. 11.5 - Trace the modified binary search algorithm for the...Ch. 11.5 - Suppose an array of length k is input to the while...Ch. 11.5 - Let wnbe the number of iterations of the while...Ch. 11.5 - In 20 and 21, draw a diagram like Figure 11.5.4 to...Ch. 11.5 - In 20 and 21, draw a diagram like Figure 11.5.4 to...Ch. 11.5 - In 22 and 23, draw a diagram like Figure 11.5.5 to...Ch. 11.5 - In 22 and 23, draw a diagram like Figure 11.5.5 to...Ch. 11.5 - Show that given an array a[bot],a[bot+1],,a[top]of...Ch. 11.5 - The recurrence relation for m1,m2,m3,,which arises...Ch. 11.5 - It might seem that n1 multiplications are needed...

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