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Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079
Textbook Problem

The halogenated methanes methylene chloride and chloroform have, respectively, the molecular formulas

  1. a. CH3Cl and CH2Cl2
  2. b. CH2Cl2 and CHCl3
  3. c. CH3Cl and CCl4
  4. d. no correct response

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The IUPAC name for the compound whose common name is propyl chloride has to be chosen from the given set of options.

Concept Introduction:

The derivative of alkane with halogen instead of one or more hydrogen atoms is known as halogenated alkane.  If the same is present in cycloalkane, then it is known as halogenated cycloalkane.  They are product of reaction between alkane/cycloalkane with halogens.

IUPAC nomenclature for halogenated alkanes/cycloalkanes:

Similar to the alkyl groups, the halogen is also treated as substituents present on the carbon chain.  They are called as fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, and iodo-.

If the carbon chain contains both alkyl and halogen, they both are considered of equal ranks.  The numbering is done in a way so that the substituents get the least number, whether it is an alkyl or a halo group.

In IUPAC names, the groups that are present on the carbon chain are written in alphabetical order.

Common names:

Halogenated alkanes are also named as alkyl halides.  These are not IUPAC names.  They are common names.  In a common name, two parts are present.  First part is the name of the hydrocarbon (alkyl group).  Second part gives the halogen present in the compound.  The halogen is considered as though it is present as an ion even though no ions are present.

Halogenation:

Halogenation is a chemical reaction between a substance and halogen.  The product of halogenation reaction is that one or more halogens are incorporated into molecules of the substance.  Halogenation of hydrocarbon gives hydrocarbon derivatives as product where halogen atoms are substituted instead of hydrogen atoms.

Halogenation reaction of alkane is an example of substitution reaction.  This is a reaction where a part of reacting molecule replaces an atom or group of atoms in hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon derivative.

Explanation

Reason for correct option:

The halogenated methanes given is methylene chloride and chloroform.  This is obtained by repeated chlorination of methane.  The generalized equation for the chlorination reaction of methane can be given as,

    CH4 + xCl2 CH4xClx + xHCl

On chlorination of methane, four products can be obtained.  Each product are obtained by replacing hydrogen atoms one by one.  The chemical formula along with nomenclature is given as,

CH3Cl - chloromethane/methyl chlorideCH2Cl2 -   dichloromethane/methylene chlorideCHCl3-trichloromethane/chloroformCCl4-Tetrachloromethane/carbontetrachloride

Therefore, from the above information, the correct option is identified as option (b)

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