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The only “stress” (change) that also changes the value of K is a change in temperature. For an exothermic reaction, how does the equilibrium position change as temperature increases, and what happens to the value of K ? Answer the same questions for an endothermic reaction. If the value of K increases with a decrease in temperature, is the reaction exothermic or endothermic? Explain.

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 12, Problem 10RQ
Textbook Problem
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The only “stress” (change) that also changes the value of K is a change in temperature. For an exothermic reaction, how does the equilibrium position change as temperature increases, and what happens to the value of K? Answer the same questions for an endothermic reaction. If the value of K increases with a decrease in temperature, is the reaction exothermic or endothermic? Explain.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The change in the equilibrium position and the effect on the K value with respect to an increase in temperature for an exothermic reaction and an endothermic reaction is to be explained. The nature of a reaction if the K value decreases with a decrease in temperature is to be stated.

Concept introduction: The equilibrium shifts in the direction in which energy is getting consumed in a given chemical reaction.

To determine: The change in the equilibrium position and the effect on the K value with respect to an increase in temperature for an exothermic reaction.

Explanation of Solution

The equilibrium shifts in the direction where energy is getting consumed. The exothermic reactions lead to the release of energy, hence the equilibrium shifts towards the left hand side.

As the reverse reaction is favored, the concentration of reactants will be more than the concentration of the products formed. Therefore, the value of the equilibrium constant K will decrease.

To determine: The change in the equilibrium position and the effect on the K value with respect to an increase in temperature for an endothermic reaction.

The equilibrium shifts in the direction where energy is getting consumed. The endothermic reactions lead to the energy getting consumed, hence the equilibrium shifts towards the right hand side.

As the forward reaction is favored, the concentration of reactants will be less than the concentration of the products formed

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Chapter 12 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 12 - Consider an equilibrium mixture of four chemicals...Ch. 12 - The boxes shown below represent a set of initial...Ch. 12 - For the reactionH2(g)+I2(g)2HI(g), consider two...Ch. 12 - Given the reactionA(g)+B(g)C(g)+D(g), consider the...Ch. 12 - Consider the reaction A(g)+2B(g)C(g)+D(g) in a...Ch. 12 - Consider the reactionA(g)+B(g)C(g)+D(g). A friend...Ch. 12 - Consider the following statements: Consider the...Ch. 12 - Le Chteliers principle is stated (Section 12-7) as...Ch. 12 - The value of the equilibrium constant K depends on...Ch. 12 - Consider an initial mixture of N2 and H2 gases...Ch. 12 - Consider the following reaction:...Ch. 12 - Consider the same reaction as in Question 11. In...Ch. 12 - Suppose a reaction has the equilibrium constant K...Ch. 12 - Suppose a reaction has the equilibrium constant K...Ch. 12 - Consider the following reaction at some...Ch. 12 - Consider the following generic reaction:...Ch. 12 - Explain the difference between K, Kp, and Q.Ch. 12 - Consider the following reactions:...Ch. 12 - For a typical equilibrium problem, the value of K...Ch. 12 - Which of the following statements is(are) true?...Ch. 12 - Write the equilibrium expression (K) for each of...Ch. 12 - Write the equilibrium expression (Kp) for each...Ch. 12 - At a given temperature, K = 1.3 102 for the...Ch. 12 - For the reaction H2(g)+Br2(g)2HBr(g) Kp = 3.5 104...Ch. 12 - For the reaction 2NO(g)+2H2(g)N2(g)+2H2O(g) it is...Ch. 12 - At high temperatures, elemental nitrogen and...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, a 3.0-L flask...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature a 2.00-L flask at...Ch. 12 - The following equilibrium pressures at a certain...Ch. 12 - The following equilibrium pressures were observed...Ch. 12 - At 327c, the equilibrium concentrations are...Ch. 12 - At 1100 K, Kp = 0.25 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - Write expressions for K and Kp for the following...Ch. 12 - Write expressions for Kp for the following...Ch. 12 - For which reactions in Exercise 33 is Kp equal to...Ch. 12 - For which reactions in Exercise 34 is Kp equal to...Ch. 12 - Consider the following reaction at a certain...Ch. 12 - In a study of the reaction...Ch. 12 - The equilibrium constant is 0.0900 at 25C for the...Ch. 12 - The equilibrium constant is 0.0900 at 25C for the...Ch. 12 - At 900c, Kp = 1.04 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - Ethyl acetate is synthesized in a nonreacting...Ch. 12 - For the reaction 2H2O(g)2H2(g)+O2(g) K = 2.4 103...Ch. 12 - The reaction 2NO(g)+Br2(g)2NOBr(g) has Kp = 109 at...Ch. 12 - A 1.00-L flask was filled with 2.00 moles of...Ch. 12 - A sample of S8(g) is placed in an otherwise empty...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, 12.0 moles of SO3 is...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, 8.0 moles of NO2 is...Ch. 12 - An initial mixture of nitrogen gas and hydrogen...Ch. 12 - Nitrogen gas (N2) reacts with hydrogen gas (H2) to...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, K = 3.75 for the...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, K = 1.00 102 for the...Ch. 12 - At 2200C, Kp = 0.050 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - At 25c, K = 0.090 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - At 1100 K, KP = 0.25 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, Kp = 0.25 for the...Ch. 12 - At 35C, K = 1.6 105 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - At o particular temperature, K = 4 .0 107 for the...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, K = 2.0 106 for the...Ch. 12 - Lexan is a plastic used to make compact discs,...Ch. 12 - At 25C, Kp. = 2.9 103 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - A sample of solid ammonium chloride was placed in...Ch. 12 - Suppose the reaction system...Ch. 12 - Predict the shift in the equilibrium position that...Ch. 12 - An important reaction in the commercial production...Ch. 12 - What will happen to the number of moles of SO3 in...Ch. 12 - In which direction will the position of the...Ch. 12 - Hydrogen for use in ammonia production is produced...Ch. 12 - Old-fashioned smelling salts consist of ammonium...Ch. 12 - Ammonia is produced by the Haber process, in which...Ch. 12 - Calculate a value for the equilibrium constant for...Ch. 12 - Given the following equilibrium constants at...Ch. 12 - Consider the decomposition of the compound C5H6O3...Ch. 12 - At 25C. Kp 1 1031 for the reaction a. Calculate...Ch. 12 - The gas arsine, AsH3, decomposes as follows:...Ch. 12 - At a certain temperature, K = 9.1 10-4 for the...Ch. 12 - At a certain temperature, K = 1.1 l03 for the...Ch. 12 - For the reaction PCl5(g)PCl3(g)+Cl2(g) at 600. K,...Ch. 12 - At 25C, gaseous SO2Cl2 decomposes to SO2(g) and...Ch. 12 - For the following reaction at a certain...Ch. 12 - Novelty devices for predicting rain contain...Ch. 12 - Consider the reaction Fe3+(aq)+SCN(aq)FeSCN2+(aq)...Ch. 12 - Chromium(VI) forms two different oxyanions, the...Ch. 12 - The synthesis of ammonia gas from nitrogen gas and...Ch. 12 - Suppose K = 4.5 103 at a certain temperature for...Ch. 12 - For the reaction below, Kp = 1.16 at 800C....Ch. 12 - Many sugars undergo a process called mutarotation,...Ch. 12 - Peptide decomposition is one of the key processes...Ch. 12 - The creation of shells by mollusk species is a...Ch. 12 - Methanol, a common laboratory solvent, poses a...Ch. 12 - For the reaction: 3O2(g)2O3(g) K = 1.8 107 at a...Ch. 12 - An equilibrium mixture contains 0.60 g solid...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, 8.1 moles of NO2 gas...Ch. 12 - A sample of solid ammonium chloride was placed in...Ch. 12 - In a given experiment, 5.2 moles of pure NOCl was...Ch. 12 - For the reactionN2O4(g)2NO2(g),Kp=0.25 at a...Ch. 12 - Consider the following exothermic reaction at...Ch. 12 - For the following endothermic reaction at...Ch. 12 - A 1.604-g sample of methane (CH4) gas and 6.400 g...Ch. 12 - A 4.72-g sample of methanol (CH3OH) was placed in...Ch. 12 - At 35C, K = 1.6 105 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - Nitric oxide and bromine at initial partial...Ch. 12 - At 25C. Kp = 5.3 105 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - Consider the reaction P4(g)2P2(g) where Kp = 1.00 ...Ch. 12 - The partial pressures of an equilibrium mixture of...Ch. 12 - At 125C, KP = 0.25 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - A mixture of N2, H2, and NH3 is at equilibrium...Ch. 12 - Consider the decomposition equilibrium for...Ch. 12 - An 8.00-g sample of SO3 was placed in an evacuated...Ch. 12 - A sample of iron(II) sulfate was heated in an...Ch. 12 - At 5000 K and 1.000 atm, 83.00% of the oxygen...Ch. 12 - A sample of N2O4(g) is placed in an empty cylinder...Ch. 12 - A sample of gaseous nitrosyl bromide (NOBr) was...Ch. 12 - The equilibrium constant Kp for the reaction...Ch. 12 - For the reaction NH3(g)+H2S(g)NH4HS(s) K = 400. at...Ch. 12 - Given K = 3.50 at 45C for the reaction...Ch. 12 - In a solution with carbon tetrachloride as the...Ch. 12 - The hydrocarbon naphthalene was frequently used in...Ch. 12 - A gaseous material XY(g) dissociates to some...

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