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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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hemicals placed in a microwave oven and exposed to microwave radiation can increase in temperature if they possess a net dipole moment. Which of the following molecules can get hot in an operating microwave oven?

msp;  CCl 4 ,  H 2 O ,  HCl ,  BH 3 ,  CO 2

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The molecules that can get hot in an operating microwave oven are to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

The dipole moment occurs as a result of polarity. Polarity in a bond results from the unequal sharing of electron density. More electronegative atom pulls the electron towards itself. Electronegativity difference aids in the uneven distribution of charges in a molecule. The high electronegativity difference results in the formation of ionic bonds, whereas low electronegativity difference generates polar bonds. The electronegativity of an element relies upon its place in the periodic table.

Explanation

Dipole moment is the product of the magnitude of the positive or negative charge and the distance between the charges. Molecules that possess regular or symmetrical geometry, their dipole moment are always zero because dipole vectors are in opposite direction and cancel with each other.

The structure of CCl4 is shown below.

Figure 1

The above structure indicates that bond polarities of CCl bonds cancel each other, due to which molecule does not possess net dipole moment.

The structure of H2O molecule is shown below.

Figure 2

Water H2O is an unsymmetrical molecule in which bond polarities do not cancel each other. Thus, it has net dipole moment value.

The structure of HCl molecule is shown below.

Figure 3

The above structure of HCl indicates that molecule has net dipole moment due to more electronegativity of chlorine atom.

The structure of BH3 molecule is shown below

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