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Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759
BuyFind

Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759

Solutions

Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P
Textbook Problem

Answer true or false.

  1. There are two classes of unsaturated hydrocarbons—alkenes and alkynes.

  • The bulk of the ethylene used by the chemical industry worldwide is obtained from renewable resources.
  • Ethylene and acetylene are constitutional isomers.
  • (d ) Cyclohexane and 1-hexene are constitutional isomers.

    Expert Solution

    (a)

    Interpretation Introduction

    Interpretation:

    To analyze whether the given statement- There are two classes of unsaturated hydrocarbons-alkenes and alkynes, is true or false.

    Concept Introduction:

    Hydrocarbons consists of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms. They are further classified as saturated or unsaturated on the basis that the hydrocarbon has all single bonds, or it involves double or triple bond also.

    The hydrocarbon that has all single bond is called as alkane with the general formula CnH2n+2

    The hydrocarbon that has at least one double bond is called as alkene wit the general formula CnH2n

    The hydrocarbon that has at least one triple bond is called as alkyne wit the general formula CnH2n2

    Answer to Problem 12.11P

    There are two classes of unsaturated hydrocarbons-alkenes and alkynes. Thus, the statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    Hydrocarbons consists of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms. They are further classified as saturated or unsaturated on the basis that the hydrocarbon has all single bonds or it involves double or triple bond also.

    The hydrocarbon that has all single bond is called as alkane with the general formula CnH2n+2

    Example- Ethane

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  1

    The hydrocarbon that has at least one double bond is called as alkene with the general formula CnH2n

    Example- Ethene

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  2

    The hydrocarbon that has at least one triple bond is called as alkyne with the general formula CnH2n2

    Example- Ethyene

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  3

    Since all the bonds in alkenes and alkynes are not single bonds, they are unsaturated hydrocarbons

    Expert Solution

    (b)

    Interpretation Introduction

    Interpretation:

    To analyze whether the given statement- The bulk of the ethylene used by the chemical industry worldwide is obtained from renewable resources , is true or false.

    Concept Introduction:

    Ethylene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon, with the formulaC2H4 and structure given as-

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  4

    Renewable sources are those sources which when used once can be generated again.e.g. solar energy is a renewable source of energy.

    Non-renewable sourcesare those sources which when used once are generated after millions of years e.g. coal and petroleum are non-renewable sources of energy.

    The bulk of the ethylene used by the chemical industry worldwide is obtained from non-renewable resources. Thus, the statement is true.

    There are several methods by which ethylene is extracted

    1. Steam Cracking of-
    2. Ethane and propane from natural gas or crude oil
    3. Naptha from crude oil
    4. Catalytic cracking of gas oil from crude oil

    Crude oil and natural gas both are non-renewable sources. Therefore, the bulk of the ethylene used by the chemical industry worldwide is obtained from non-renewable resources

    (c)

    Interpretation:

    To analyze whether the give statement- Ethylene and acetylene are constitutional isomers, is true or false.

    Concept Introduction:

    There are compounds which have same constituents but differ in the arrangement of atoms in space. The constitutional isomers are those compounds that have same molecular formula but different structural formula. For example- 2-Chloro butane and 1-Chloro butane are constitutional isomers.

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  5Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  6

    2-Chlorobutane      1-Chlorobutane

    Ethylene and acetylene are not constitutional isomers. Thus, the statement is false.

    There are compounds which have same constituents but differ in the arrangement of atoms in space. The constitutional isomers are those compounds that have same molecular formula but different structural formula.

    The molecular formula for ethylene

      C2H4

    The structural formula for ethylene-

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  7

    The molecular formula for acetylene

      C2H2

    The structural formula for acetylene-

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  8

    Since ethylene and acetylene neither have same molecular formula nor structural formula. So they are not constitutional formula.

    (d)

    Interpretation:

    To analyze whether the give statement- Cyclohexane and 1-hexene are constitutional isomers, is true or false.

    Concept Introduction:

    There are compounds which have same constituents but differ in the arrangement of atoms in space. The constitutional isomers are those compounds that have same molecular formula but different structural formula. For example- 2-Chloro butane and 1-Chloro butane are constitutional isomers.

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  9Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  10

    2-Chlorobutane      1-Chlorobutane

    Cyclohexane and 1-hexene are constitutional isomers. Thus, the statement is true.

    There are compounds which have same constituents but differ in the arrangement of atoms in space. The constitutional isomers are those compounds that have same molecular formula but different structural formula.

    The molecular formula for Cyclohexane

      C6H12

    The structural formula for Cyclohexane -

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  11

    Cyclohexane

    The molecular formula for 1-hexene

      C6H12

    The structural formula for 1-hexene -

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  12

    1-hexene

    Since, cyclohexane and 1-hexene have same molecular formula and structural formula so, they are constitutional formula.

    Answer to Problem 12.11P

    The bulk of the ethylene used by the chemical industry worldwide is obtained from non-renewable resources. Thus, the statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    There are several methods by which ethylene is extracted

    1. Steam Cracking of-
    2. Ethane and propane from natural gas or crude oil
    3. Naptha from crude oil
    4. Catalytic cracking of gas oil from crude oil

    Crude oil and natural gas both are non-renewable sources. Therefore, the bulk of the ethylene used by the chemical industry worldwide is obtained from non-renewable resources

    Expert Solution

    (c)

    Interpretation Introduction

    Interpretation:

    To analyze whether the give statement- Ethylene and acetylene are constitutional isomers, is true or false.

    Concept Introduction:

    There are compounds which have same constituents but differ in the arrangement of atoms in space. The constitutional isomers are those compounds that have same molecular formula but different structural formula. For example- 2-Chloro butane and 1-Chloro butane are constitutional isomers.

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  13Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  14

    2-Chlorobutane      1-Chlorobutane

    Answer to Problem 12.11P

    Ethylene and acetylene are not constitutional isomers. Thus, the statement is false.

    Explanation of Solution

    There are compounds which have same constituents but differ in the arrangement of atoms in space. The constitutional isomers are those compounds that have same molecular formula but different structural formula.

    The molecular formula for ethylene

      C2H4

    The structural formula for ethylene-

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  15

    The molecular formula for acetylene

      C2H2

    The structural formula for acetylene-

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  16

    Since ethylene and acetylene neither have same molecular formula nor structural formula. So they are not constitutional formula.

    Expert Solution

    (d)

    Interpretation Introduction

    Interpretation:

    To analyze whether the give statement- Cyclohexane and 1-hexene are constitutional isomers, is true or false.

    Concept Introduction:

    There are compounds which have same constituents but differ in the arrangement of atoms in space. The constitutional isomers are those compounds that have same molecular formula but different structural formula. For example- 2-Chloro butane and 1-Chloro butane are constitutional isomers.

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  17Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  18

    2-Chlorobutane      1-Chlorobutane

    Answer to Problem 12.11P

    Cyclohexane and 1-hexene are constitutional isomers. Thus, the statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    There are compounds which have same constituents but differ in the arrangement of atoms in space. The constitutional isomers are those compounds that have same molecular formula but different structural formula.

    The molecular formula for Cyclohexane

      C6H12

    The structural formula for Cyclohexane -

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  19

    Cyclohexane

    The molecular formula for 1-hexene

      C6H12

    The structural formula for 1-hexene -

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.11P , additional homework tip  20

    1-hexene

    Since, cyclohexane and 1-hexene have same molecular formula and structural formula so, they are constitutional formula.

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    Chapter 12 Solutions

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
    Ch. 12 - Answer true or false. There are two classes of...Ch. 12 - Answer true or false. Both ethylene and acetylene...Ch. 12 - 12-13 What is the difference in structure between...Ch. 12 - There are three compounds with the molecular...Ch. 12 - 12-15 Name and draw structural formulas for all...Ch. 12 - Name and draw structural formulas for alkenes with...Ch. 12 - Draw a structural formula for at least one...Ch. 12 - Each carbon atom in ethane and in ethylene is...Ch. 12 - Prob. 12.19PCh. 12 - 12*20 Predict all bond angles about each...Ch. 12 - Answer true or false. The IUPAC name of an alkene...Ch. 12 - 12*22 Draw a structural formula for each compound....Ch. 12 - 12-23 Draw a structural formula for each compound....Ch. 12 - Prob. 12.24PCh. 12 - 12-25 Write the IUPAC name for each unsaturated...Ch. 12 - Explain why each name is incorrect and then write...Ch. 12 - 12-27 Explain why each name is incorrect and then...Ch. 12 - What structural feature in alkenes makes cis-trans...Ch. 12 - 12-29 Which of these alkenes show cis-trans...Ch. 12 - 12-30 Which of these alkenes shows cis-trans...Ch. 12 - 12-31 Cyclodecene exists as both cis and trans...Ch. 12 - Arachidonic acid is a naturally occurring C„o...Ch. 12 - Following is the structural formula of a naturally...Ch. 12 - If you examine the structural formulas for the...Ch. 12 - 12*35 For each molecule that shows eis-trans...Ch. 12 - Name and draw structural formulas for all...Ch. 12 - /3-Ocimene, a triene found in the fragrance of...Ch. 12 - Answer true or false. Alkenes and alkynes are...Ch. 12 - Answer true or false. Complete combustion of an...Ch. 12 - 12-40 Define alkene addition reaction. Write an...Ch. 12 - Prob. 12.41PCh. 12 - 12-42 Complete these equations.Ch. 12 - Draw structural formulas for all possible...Ch. 12 - 12-44 Draw a structural formula for the product...Ch. 12 - 12-45 Draw a structural formula for the product of...Ch. 12 - Draw a structural formula for an alkene with the...Ch. 12 - 12-47 Draw a structural formula for an alkene with...Ch. 12 - Draw a structural formula for an alkene with the...Ch. 12 - With the notable exception of ethanol, the acid-...Ch. 12 - 12-50 Draw the structural formula of an alkene...Ch. 12 - Acid-catalyzed hydration of 2-pentene gives a...Ch. 12 - Terpin, CloH20O2, is prepared commercially by the...Ch. 12 - Following is the structural formula of...Ch. 12 - Propose an explanation for the following...Ch. 12 - There are nine alkenes with the molecular formula...Ch. 12 - Prob. 12.56PCh. 12 - 12-57 Hydrocarbon A, Cf,Hs, reacts with 2 moles of...Ch. 12 - 12-58 Show how to convert ethylene to these...Ch. 12 - 12-59 Show how to convert 1-butene to these...Ch. 12 - Answer true or false. Ethylene contains one...Ch. 12 - 12-61 (Chemical Connections 12A) What is one...Ch. 12 - (Chemical Connections 12B) Linolenic acid is a...Ch. 12 - (Chemical Connections 12C) What is the meaning of...Ch. 12 - 12-64 (Chemical Connections 120 What is the...Ch. 12 - (Chemical Connections 120 Assume that 1 X IO-12 g...Ch. 12 - (Chemical Connections 12D) What different func...Ch. 12 - 12-67 (Chemical Connections 12D ) In which isomer...Ch. 12 - (Chemical Connections 12E» What types of consumer...Ch. 12 - 12-69 (Chemical Connections 12E) In recycling...Ch. 12 - Write line-angle formulas for all compounds with...Ch. 12 - Refer to the structure of lycopene at the bottom...Ch. 12 - Prob. 12.72PCh. 12 - Prob. 12.73PCh. 12 - Propose a structural formula for the product!s)...Ch. 12 - cis-3-Hexene and fra ns-3-hexene are different...Ch. 12 - Draw the structural formula of an alkene that...Ch. 12 - 12-77 Show how to convert cyclopentene into these...Ch. 12 - In Chapter 21 on the biochemistry of lipids, we...Ch. 12 - The fatty acids in Problem 12-78 occur in animal...Ch. 12 - In omega-3 fatty adds, the last carbon of the last...Ch. 12 - Prob. 12.81P

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