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Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781305081079
BuyFind

Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781305081079

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 12, Problem 12.1EP
Textbook Problem

Classify anabolism and catabolism as synthetic or degradative processes.

Expert Solution
Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To classify anabolism and catabolism as a synthetic or degradative process.

Concept introduction: The sum of various chemical reactions occurring in the human body is called metabolism and the reactions individually are known as metabolic reactions. Metabolic reactions are of two types: catabolism and anabolism.

In catabolism, the metabolic reactions occur so that large biomolecules break down into smaller molecules with the release of energy. On the other hand in anabolism, the metabolic reactions occur so that the smaller molecules combine to form larger molecules with consumption of energy.

Synthetic process is the process in which the two or more molecules combine to form the final product of the process. In the degradative process, the large molecules break down into two or more smaller molecules.

Answer to Problem 12.1EP

Anabolism is classified as a synthetic process and catabolism as a degradative process.

Explanation of Solution

Anabolism is considered as a synthetic process because in both the processes the two or more smaller molecules combine and forms a larger molecule. On the other hand, catabolism is classified as a degradative process because both the processes involve the breakdown of the larger molecule into smaller molecules.

Conclusion

The process in which two or more molecules are joining is considered as a synthetic process, therefore, anabolism is a synthetic process and the process in which larger molecule break down into smaller ones is known as a degradative process, therefore, catabolism is a degradative process.

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Chapter 12 Solutions

Organic And Biological Chemistry
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Ch. 12.3 - Which of the following statements concerning...Ch. 12.4 - Which of the following structural descriptions for...Ch. 12.4 - Which of the following structural descriptions for...Ch. 12.5 - A high-energy compound is a compound that contains...Ch. 12.5 - How many strained bonds are present in an ATP...Ch. 12.5 - How many phosphorusoxygen bonds are broken and how...Ch. 12.6 - Which of the following occurs in the second stage...Ch. 12.6 - Which of the following stages in the biochemical...Ch. 12.6 - Which of the following is part of the common...Ch. 12.7 - The fuel for the citric acid cycle is a. acetyl...Ch. 12.7 - Which of the following is a general description of...Ch. 12.7 - Which of the following pairs of substances are...Ch. 12.7 - How many NADH and FADH2 molecules are produced,...Ch. 12.7 - Which of the following citric acid cycle...Ch. 12.7 - In which of the following listings of citric acid...Ch. 12.8 - Which of the following is a fuel for the electron...Ch. 12.8 - Which of the following is a mobile electron...Ch. 12.8 - What is the substrate that initially interacts...Ch. 12.8 - The number of fixed enzyme sites in the electron...Ch. 12.8 - In which of the following listings of electron...Ch. 12.8 - In which step in the electron transport chain does...Ch. 12.9 - How many of the four enzyme complexes in the...Ch. 12.9 - The entering of one NADH molecule into the...Ch. 12.9 - Which of the following statements concerning...Ch. 12.10 - How many moles of ATP are ultimately produced from...Ch. 12.10 - How many moles of ATP are ultimately produced from...Ch. 12.11 - Which of the following is not an ROS species? a....Ch. 12.11 - The elimination of superoxide ion from cells is a...Ch. 12.11 - ROS species that escape destruction through normal...Ch. 12.12 - How many different B vitamins participate in the...Ch. 12.12 - Which of the following is not a...Ch. 12 - Classify anabolism and catabolism as synthetic or...Ch. 12 - Classify anabolism and catabolism as...Ch. 12 - What is a metabolic pathway?Ch. 12 - What is the difference between a linear and a...Ch. 12 - Classify each of the following processes as...Ch. 12 - Classify each of the following processes as...Ch. 12 - List several differences between prokaryotic cells...Ch. 12 - What kinds of organisms have prokaryotic cells and...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 12 - What does each letter in ATP stand for?Ch. 12 - What does each letter in ADP stand for?Ch. 12 - Specify, by name and by number present, the...Ch. 12 - Specify, by name and by number present, the...Ch. 12 - How many of each of the following are present in...Ch. 12 - How many of each of the following are present in...Ch. 12 - What is the structural difference between the...Ch. 12 - What is the structural difference between the...Ch. 12 - What does the designation Pi stand for?Ch. 12 - What is the chemical formula for a Pi entity?Ch. 12 - Write a generalized chemical equation, containing...Ch. 12 - Write a generalized chemical equation, containing...Ch. 12 - What does each letter in FAD stand for?Ch. 12 - What does each letter in NAD+ stand for?Ch. 12 - Draw each of the following types of block diagrams...Ch. 12 - Draw each of the following types of block diagrams...Ch. 12 - What is the name of the B vitamin present in each...Ch. 12 - What is the name of the B vitamin present in each...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether the B vitamin portion of each of...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether the B vitamin portion of each of...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following notations...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following notations...Ch. 12 - What identical structural subunits do the...Ch. 12 - What identical structural subunits do the...Ch. 12 - Draw the three-subunit block diagram for CoA.Ch. 12 - Draw the six-subunit block diagram for CoA.Ch. 12 - Which of the subunits in the six-subunit block...Ch. 12 - Which of the subunits in the three-subunit block...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether the biochemical function of each...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether the biochemical function of each...Ch. 12 - Classify each of the following molecules as (1) an...Ch. 12 - Classify each of the following molecules as (1) an...Ch. 12 - Which of the substances ATP, CoASH, FAD, and NAD+...Ch. 12 - Which of the substances ATP, CoASH, FAD, and NAD+...Ch. 12 - Draw structural formulas for each of the following...Ch. 12 - Draw structural formulas for each of the following...Ch. 12 - Which of the substances malate, oxaloacetate,...Ch. 12 - Which of the substances malate, oxaloacetate,...Ch. 12 - What is a high-energy compound?Ch. 12 - What factors contribute to a strained bond in...Ch. 12 - What does the designation Pi denote?Ch. 12 - What does the designation PPi denote?Ch. 12 - With the help of Table 23-1, determine which...Ch. 12 - With the help of Table 23-1, determine which...Ch. 12 - In the conversion of ADP to AMP and Pi via...Ch. 12 - In the conversion of ATP to AMP and 2 Pi via...Ch. 12 - List, by name, the four general stages of the...Ch. 12 - Which, by name, of the four general stages of the...Ch. 12 - What are two other names for the citric acid...Ch. 12 - What is the basis for the name citric acid cycle?Ch. 12 - What two compounds are needed to start a turn of...Ch. 12 - What is the fuel for the citric acid cycle?Ch. 12 - At what location in a mitochondrion does seven out...Ch. 12 - One of the eight reactions of the citric acid...Ch. 12 - In the citric acid cycle what is the general type...Ch. 12 - In the citric acid cycle what is the general type...Ch. 12 - Consider the reactions that occur during one turn...Ch. 12 - Consider the reactions that occur during one turn...Ch. 12 - There are eight steps in the citric acid cycle....Ch. 12 - There are eight steps in the citric acid cycle....Ch. 12 - There are four C4 dicarboxylic acid species in the...Ch. 12 - There are two keto carboxylic acid species in the...Ch. 12 - Characterize, in terms of number of carbon atoms...Ch. 12 - Characterize, in terms of number of carbon atoms...Ch. 12 - Identify the oxidized coenzyme (NAD+ or FAD) that...Ch. 12 - Identify the oxidized coenzyme (NAD+ or FAD) that...Ch. 12 - List the two citric acid cycle intermediates...Ch. 12 - List the two citric acid cycle intermediates...Ch. 12 - What two substances provide the electrons needed...Ch. 12 - What change occurs relative to electron energy as...Ch. 12 - What substance is the final electron acceptor in...Ch. 12 - What substance is the final product in the...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether the electron carriers in each of...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether the electron carriers in each of...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following electron...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following electron...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following changes...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following changes...Ch. 12 - With which of the protein complexes (I, II, III,...Ch. 12 - With which of the protein complexes (I, II, III,...Ch. 12 - Which electron carrier shuttles electrons between...Ch. 12 - Which electron carrier shuttles electrons between...Ch. 12 - How many electrons does the electron carrier...Ch. 12 - How many electrons does the electron carrier...Ch. 12 - Fill in the missing substances in the following...Ch. 12 - Fill in the missing substances in the following...Ch. 12 - Classify each of the following substances as (1) a...Ch. 12 - Classify each of the following substances as (1) a...Ch. 12 - Put the following substances in the correct order...Ch. 12 - Put the following substances in the correct order...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following substances...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following substances...Ch. 12 - What is oxidative phosphorylation?Ch. 12 - What are coupled reactions?Ch. 12 - At what two locations in a mitochondrion are the...Ch. 12 - At what mitochondrion location does H+ ion buildup...Ch. 12 - How many protons cross the inner mitochondrial...Ch. 12 - How many protons cross the inner mitochondrial...Ch. 12 - How many protons cross the inner mitochondrial...Ch. 12 - How many protons cross the inner mitochondrial...Ch. 12 - What is the name of the enzyme that catalyzes ATP...Ch. 12 - What is the location of the enzyme that uses...Ch. 12 - In oxidative phosphorylation, what is oxidized and...Ch. 12 - In oxidative phosphorylation, what are the...Ch. 12 - What process must occur before an ATP molecule...Ch. 12 - How many H+ ions are consumed in the process of...Ch. 12 - How many ATP molecules are formed for a. each NADH...Ch. 12 - NADH and FADH2 molecules do not yield the number...Ch. 12 - In which step(s) of the CAC are...Ch. 12 - In which step(s) of the CAC are...Ch. 12 - How many moles of ATP become available for...Ch. 12 - How many moles of ATP become available for...Ch. 12 - What does the designation ROS stand for?Ch. 12 - Give the chemical formula for each of the...Ch. 12 - Give the chemical equation for the reaction by...Ch. 12 - Give the chemical equation for the reaction by...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether or not each of the following B...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether or not each of the following B...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether or not each of the following B...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether or not each of the following B...

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