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General, Organic, and Biological C...

7th Edition
H. Stephen Stoker
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285853918

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General, Organic, and Biological C...

7th Edition
H. Stephen Stoker
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285853918
Chapter 12, Problem 12.37EP
Textbook Problem
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Convert each of the following linear condensed structural formulas into “regular” condensed structural formulas.

  1. a. CH3—CH2—CH—(CH3)—CH2—CH3
  2. b. (CH3)2—CH—CH2—CH—(CH3)2
  3. c. CH3—CH—(CH3)—CH3
  4. d. CH3—CH2—CH—(CH2—CH3)—CH2—CH3

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The given linear condensed structural formula has to be converted into “regular” condensed structural formula.

Concept Introduction:

The structural representation of organic compound can be done in 2D and 3D.  In two-dimensional representation, there are four types of representation in which an organic compound can be drawn.  They are,

  • Expanded structural formula
  • Condensed structural formula
  • Skeletal structural formula
  • Line-angle structural formula

Structural formula which shows all the atoms in a molecule along with all the bonds that is connecting the atoms present in the molecule is known as Expanded structural formula.

Structural formula in which grouping of atoms are done and in which the central atoms along with the other atoms are connected to them are treated as group is known as Condensed structural formula.

Structural formula that shows the bonding between carbon atoms alone in the molecule ignoring the hydrogen atoms being shown explicitly is known as Skeletal structural formula.

Structural formula where a line represent carbon‑carbon bond and the carbon atom is considered to be present in each point and the end of lines is known as Line-angle structural formula.

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.37EP , additional homework tip  1

In condensed structural formula for alkanes, the repeating CH2 group can be represented using parentheses and subscript.  Subscript here represents the number of times the CH2 group is repeated in a continuous chain.

The condensed structural formula for branched chain alkane can be entered using parentheses to give a linear (straight-line) condensed structural formula.  Groups in parentheses are understood that it is attached to the carbon atom that precedes the group.

Explanation of Solution

The given linear condensed structural formula is,

  CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH2CH3

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The given linear condensed structural formula has to be converted into “regular” condensed structural formula.

Concept Introduction:

The structural representation of organic compound can be done in 2D and 3D.  In two-dimensional representation, there are four types of representation in which an organic compound can be drawn.  They are,

  • Expanded structural formula
  • Condensed structural formula
  • Skeletal structural formula
  • Line-angle structural formula

Structural formula which shows all the atoms in a molecule along with all the bonds that is connecting the atoms present in the molecule is known as Expanded structural formula.

Structural formula in which grouping of atoms are done and in which the central atoms along with the other atoms are connected to them are treated as group is known as Condensed structural formula.

Structural formula that shows the bonding between carbon atoms alone in the molecule ignoring the hydrogen atoms being shown explicitly is known as Skeletal structural formula.

Structural formula where a line represent carbon‑carbon bond and the carbon atom is considered to be present in each point and the end of lines is known as Line-angle structural formula.

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.37EP , additional homework tip  2

In condensed structural formula for alkanes, the repeating CH2 group can be represented using parentheses and subscript.  Subscript here represents the number of times the CH2 group is repeated in a continuous chain.

The condensed structural formula for branched chain alkane can be entered using parentheses to give a linear (straight-line) condensed structural formula.  Groups in parentheses are understood that it is attached to the carbon atom that precedes the group.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The given linear condensed structural formula has to be converted into “regular” condensed structural formula.

Concept Introduction:

The structural representation of organic compound can be done in 2D and 3D.  In two-dimensional representation, there are four types of representation in which an organic compound can be drawn.  They are,

  • Expanded structural formula
  • Condensed structural formula
  • Skeletal structural formula
  • Line-angle structural formula

Structural formula which shows all the atoms in a molecule along with all the bonds that is connecting the atoms present in the molecule is known as Expanded structural formula.

Structural formula in which grouping of atoms are done and in which the central atoms along with the other atoms are connected to them are treated as group is known as Condensed structural formula.

Structural formula that shows the bonding between carbon atoms alone in the molecule ignoring the hydrogen atoms being shown explicitly is known as Skeletal structural formula.

Structural formula where a line represent carbon‑carbon bond and the carbon atom is considered to be present in each point and the end of lines is known as Line-angle structural formula.

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.37EP , additional homework tip  3

In condensed structural formula for alkanes, the repeating CH2 group can be represented using parentheses and subscript.  Subscript here represents the number of times the CH2 group is repeated in a continuous chain.

The condensed structural formula for branched chain alkane can be entered using parentheses to give a linear (straight-line) condensed structural formula.  Groups in parentheses are understood that it is attached to the carbon atom that precedes the group.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The given linear condensed structural formula has to be converted into “regular” condensed structural formula.

Concept Introduction:

The structural representation of organic compound can be done in 2D and 3D.  In two-dimensional representation, there are four types of representation in which an organic compound can be drawn.  They are,

  • Expanded structural formula
  • Condensed structural formula
  • Skeletal structural formula
  • Line-angle structural formula

Structural formula which shows all the atoms in a molecule along with all the bonds that is connecting the atoms present in the molecule is known as Expanded structural formula.

Structural formula in which grouping of atoms are done and in which the central atoms along with the other atoms are connected to them are treated as group is known as Condensed structural formula.

Structural formula that shows the bonding between carbon atoms alone in the molecule ignoring the hydrogen atoms being shown explicitly is known as Skeletal structural formula.

Structural formula where a line represent carbon‑carbon bond and the carbon atom is considered to be present in each point and the end of lines is known as Line-angle structural formula.

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Chapter 12, Problem 12.37EP , additional homework tip  4

In condensed structural formula for alkanes, the repeating CH2 group can be represented using parentheses and subscript.  Subscript here represents the number of times the CH2 group is repeated in a continuous chain.

The condensed structural formula for branched chain alkane can be entered using parentheses to give a linear (straight-line) condensed structural formula.  Groups in parentheses are understood that it is attached to the carbon atom that precedes the group.

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Chapter 12 Solutions

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry
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Ch. 12.5 - Which of the following is an incorrect structural...Ch. 12.5 - The bond line in the structural formula CH3CH3...Ch. 12.6 - Isomers are compounds that have a. the same...Ch. 12.6 - One of the two four-carbon alkane constitutional...Ch. 12.6 - Constitutional isomers become possible in alkanes...Ch. 12.6 - How many of the three constitutional isomeric...Ch. 12.7 - How many branches are present in the alkane with...Ch. 12.7 - The structural formulas represent a. two alkane...Ch. 12.8 - The relationship between an alkyl group and its...Ch. 12.8 - The name for the alkyl group CH3CH2CH2 is a....Ch. 12.8 - Which of the following statements about IUPAC...Ch. 12.8 - The IUPAC name for the alkane is a. methane...Ch. 12.8 - The IUPAC name for the alkane is a....Ch. 12.8 - Which of the following alkanes contains eight...Ch. 12.8 - The number of alkyl groups and the number of...Ch. 12.9 - How many carbon atoms are present in the alkane ?...Ch. 12.9 - The line-angle structural formula for the alkane,...Ch. 12.10 - A secondary carbon atom is directly bonded to how...Ch. 12.10 - In which of the following alkanes are both 2 and 3...Ch. 12.11 - The number of different three-carbon and...Ch. 12.11 - Which of the following is not a representation for...Ch. 12.11 - Which of the following is a representation for a...Ch. 12.12 - When the molecular formulas for cyclic and...Ch. 12.12 - How many carbon atoms are present in the...Ch. 12.12 - How many hydrogen atoms are present in a...Ch. 12.13 - The IUPAC name for the cycloalkane is a....Ch. 12.13 - Which of the following cycloalkanes does not...Ch. 12.13 - Which of the following is an incorrect IUPAC name...Ch. 12.14 - How many constitutional isomers are possible for a...Ch. 12.14 - For which of the following cycloalkanes is...Ch. 12.14 - Which of the following cycloalkane structures has...Ch. 12.15 - Which of the following statements concerning...Ch. 12.15 - Which of the following is not a mixture of cyclic...Ch. 12.16 - Which of the following is a general physical...Ch. 12.16 - Which of the following statements concerning...Ch. 12.16 - Which of the following alkanes is a gas at room...Ch. 12.17 - The most important chemical use for alkanes...Ch. 12.17 - The chemical products formed when an alkane...Ch. 12.17 - Which of the following is not a product when an...Ch. 12.17 - Which of the following statements concerning the...Ch. 12.18 - What is the IUPAC name for the compound whose...Ch. 12.18 - What is the common name for the compound whose...Ch. 12.18 - The halogenated methanes methylene chloride and...Ch. 12.18 - A Freon is a halogenated methane in which both a....Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following compounds...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following compounds...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following situations...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following situations...Ch. 12 - What is the difference between a hydrocarbon and a...Ch. 12 - Contrast hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives...Ch. 12 - What is the difference between a saturated...Ch. 12 - What structural feature is present in an...Ch. 12 - Classify each of the following hydrocarbons as...Ch. 12 - Classify each of the following hydrocarbons as...Ch. 12 - Using the general formula for an alkane, derive...Ch. 12 - Using the general formula for an alkane, derive...Ch. 12 - Convert the following expanded structural formulas...Ch. 12 - Convert the following expanded structural formulas...Ch. 12 - Convert the expanded structural formulas in...Ch. 12 - Convert the expanded structural formulas in...Ch. 12 - Convert the expanded structural formulas in...Ch. 12 - Convert the expanded structural formulas in...Ch. 12 - Draw the indicated type of formula for the...Ch. 12 - Draw the indicated type of formula for the...Ch. 12 - Determine the following for the six-carbon alkane...Ch. 12 - Determine the following for the five-carbon alkane...Ch. 12 - What, if anything, is wrong with the following...Ch. 12 - What, if anything, is wrong with the following...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following would be...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following would be...Ch. 12 - Explain why two alkanes with the molecular...Ch. 12 - Explain why two different straight-chain alkanes...Ch. 12 - With the help of Table 12-1, indicate how many...Ch. 12 - With the help of Table 12-1, indicate how many...Ch. 12 - How many of the numerous eight-carbon alkane...Ch. 12 - How many of the numerous seven-carbon alkane...Ch. 12 - For each of the following pairs of structures,...Ch. 12 - For each of the following pairs of structures,...Ch. 12 - Convert each of the following linear condensed...Ch. 12 - Convert each of the following linear condensed...Ch. 12 - Draw condensed structural formulas that do not...Ch. 12 - Draw condensed structural formulas that do not...Ch. 12 - What is the name of the IUPAC prefix associated...Ch. 12 - What is the name of the IUPAC prefix associated...Ch. 12 - What is the IUPAC name for each of the following...Ch. 12 - What is the IUPAC name for each of the following...Ch. 12 - What is the chemical formula for each of the...Ch. 12 - What is the chemical formula for each of the...Ch. 12 - The first step in naming an alkane is to identify...Ch. 12 - The first step in naming an alkane is to identify...Ch. 12 - Give the IUPAC name for each of the following...Ch. 12 - Give the IUPAC name for each of the following...Ch. 12 - Give the IUPAC name for each of the following...Ch. 12 - Give the IUPAC name for each of the following...Ch. 12 - Draw a condensed structural formula for each of...Ch. 12 - Draw a condensed structural formula for each of...Ch. 12 - For each of the alkanes in Problem 12-53,...Ch. 12 - For each of the alkanes in Problem 12-54,...Ch. 12 - Explain why the name given for each of the...Ch. 12 - Explain why the name given for each of the...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether or not the two alkanes in each of...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether or not the two alkanes in each of...Ch. 12 - How many of the 18 C8 alkane constitutional...Ch. 12 - How many of the nine C7 alkane constitutional...Ch. 12 - Convert each of the following line-angle...Ch. 12 - Convert each of the following line-angle...Ch. 12 - Convert each of the following line-angle...Ch. 12 - Convert each of the following line-angle...Ch. 12 - Do the line-angle structural formulas in each of...Ch. 12 - Do the line-angle structural formulas in each of...Ch. 12 - Convert each of the condensed structural formulas...Ch. 12 - Convert each of the condensed structural formulas...Ch. 12 - Assign an IUPAC name to each of the compounds in...Ch. 12 - Assign an IUPAC name to each of the compounds in...Ch. 12 - Determine the molecular formula for each of the...Ch. 12 - Determine the molecular formula for each of the...Ch. 12 - For each of the alkane structures in Problem...Ch. 12 - For each of the alkane structures in Problem...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether or not both 2 and 3 carbon atoms...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether or not both 2 and 3 carbon atoms...Ch. 12 - Draw the condensed structural formula for an...Ch. 12 - Draw the condensed structural formula for an...Ch. 12 - Give the name of the branched alkyl group attached...Ch. 12 - Give the name of the branched alkyl group attached...Ch. 12 - Draw condensed structural formulas for the...Ch. 12 - Draw condensed structural formulas for the...Ch. 12 - To which carbon atoms in a hexane molecule can...Ch. 12 - To which carbon atoms in a heptane molecule can...Ch. 12 - Using IUPAC rules, name the following complex...Ch. 12 - Using IUPAC rules, name the following complex...Ch. 12 - Give an acceptable alternate name for each of the...Ch. 12 - Give an acceptable alternate name for each...Ch. 12 - How many different alkyl groups exist that contain...Ch. 12 - How many different alkyl groups exist that contain...Ch. 12 - Using the general formula for a cycloalkane,...Ch. 12 - Using the general formula for a cycloalkane,...Ch. 12 - What is the molecular formula for each of the...Ch. 12 - What is the molecular formula for each of the...Ch. 12 - How many alkyl groups are present in each of the...Ch. 12 - How many alkyl groups are present in each of the...Ch. 12 - How many secondary carbon atoms are present in...Ch. 12 - How many secondary carbon atoms are present in...Ch. 12 - Assign an IUPAC name to each of the following...Ch. 12 - Assign an IUPAC name to each of the following...Ch. 12 - What is wrong with each of the following attempts...Ch. 12 - What is wrong with each of the following attempts...Ch. 12 - Draw line-angle structural formulas for the...Ch. 12 - Draw line-angle structural formulas for the...Ch. 12 - What is the molecular formula for each of the...Ch. 12 - What is the molecular formula for each of the...Ch. 12 - Classify each of the compounds in Problem 12-107...Ch. 12 - Classify each of the compounds in Problem 12-108...Ch. 12 - Determine the number of constitutional isomers...Ch. 12 - Determine the number of constitutional isomers...Ch. 12 - Determine whether cistrans isomerism is possible...Ch. 12 - Determine whether cistrans isomerism is possible...Ch. 12 - Classify as cis- or trans- the positioning of the...Ch. 12 - Classify as cis- or trans- the positioning of the...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether the members of each of the...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether the members of each of the...Ch. 12 - In terms of the types of hydrocarbons present,...Ch. 12 - In terms of the types of hydrocarbons present,...Ch. 12 - What physical property of hydrocarbons is the...Ch. 12 - Describe the process by which crude petroleum is...Ch. 12 - Which member in each of the following pairs of...Ch. 12 - Which member in each of the following pairs of...Ch. 12 - With the help of Figures 12-11 and 12-12,...Ch. 12 - With the help of Figures 12-11 and 12-12,...Ch. 12 - Answer the following questions about the...Ch. 12 - Answer the following questions about the...Ch. 12 - Write the formulas of the products from the...Ch. 12 - Write the formulas of the products from the...Ch. 12 - Write molecular formulas for all the possible...Ch. 12 - Write molecular formulas for all the possible...Ch. 12 - Write structural formulas for all the possible...Ch. 12 - Write structural formulas for all the possible...Ch. 12 - Assign an IUPAC name to each of the following...Ch. 12 - Assign an IUPAC name to each of the following...Ch. 12 - Name each of the compounds in Problem 12-135 as an...Ch. 12 - Name each of the compounds in Problem 12-136 as an...Ch. 12 - Draw structural formulas for the following...Ch. 12 - Draw structural formulas for the following...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following molecular...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether each of the following molecular...Ch. 12 - Which member of each of the following pairs of...Ch. 12 - Which member of each of the following pairs of...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether or not the following halogenated...Ch. 12 - Indicate whether or not the following halogenated...Ch. 12 - Give the IUPAC names for the eight isomeric...Ch. 12 - Give the IUPAC names for the nine isomeric...

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