General Chemistry - Standalone boo...

11th Edition
Steven D. Gammon + 7 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305580343

General Chemistry - Standalone boo...

11th Edition
Steven D. Gammon + 7 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305580343


Chapter 12, Problem 12.67QP
Textbook Problem

Calculate the vapor pressure at 35°C of a solution made by dissolving 24.8 g of sucrose, C12H22O31, in 70.1 g of water. The vapor pressure of pure water at 35°C is 42.2 mmHg. What is the vapor-pressure lowering of the solution? (Sucrose is nonvolatile.)

Expert Solution
Interpretation Introduction


Vapor pressure lowering of the sucrose solution has to be calculated.  Vapor pressure of the solution of 24.8 g naphthalene dissolved in 70.1 g of chloroform has to be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

Vapor pressure of a substance is known as the pressure exerted by molecules on the vapor phase when they are in equilibrium with their actual phase which can be liquid or solid.

A solution is at least made up of two components.  Mole fraction of a component in the solution correlates to the ratio of number of moles of that component to the total number of moles.  It is expressed as,

Mole fraction = number of moles of a componenttotal number of moles in the solution

A substance is said to be volatile if it vaporizes readily at room temperature itself.  Such substances have high vapor pressure as most of its molecules tend to exist in vapor phase.  A substance is said to be non-volatile if it doesn’t vaporize spontaneously and remains stable.

Vapor pressure of a volatile solvent can be lowered by addition of a non-volatile solute. Raoult’s law deals with the vapor pressure of pure solvents and solution which states –

Partial pressure of solvent is equivalent to the product of vapor pressure of the solvent in its pure state and mole fraction of solvent in the solution.  It is expressed as,



PA = Partial vapor pressure of solvent in solutionPA° = Vapor pressure of pure solventXA= mole fraction of solvent in the solution

When the solute is non-volatile, the vapor pressure of the whole solution is equal to PA.

The lowering of vapor pressure of the solvent due to the addition of non-volatile solute is expressed as,



  XB is the mole fraction of the solute.

Explanation of Solution


24.8 g of sucrose is dissolved in 70.1 g of water. Molar mass of sucrose and water are 342.3 g/mol and 18.02 g/mol respectively. Calculate the number of moles and then mole fraction of sucrose and water as follows –

No. of moles of sucrose mass of sucrosemolar mass of sucrose                                                24.8 g342.3 g/mol = 0.07245 molNo. of moles of water mass of watermolar mass of water                                              70.1 g18.02 g/mol = 3.890 molTotal no.of moles in solution  = 0

Want to see this answer and more?

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

See solution

Chapter 12 Solutions

General Chemistry - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)
Show all chapter solutions
Ch. 12.4 - Calculate the mole fractions of toluene and...Ch. 12.4 - A solution is 0.120 m methanol dissolved in...Ch. 12.4 - A solution is 0.250 mole fraction methanol, CH3OH,...Ch. 12.4 - Urea, (NH2)2CO, is used as a fertilizer (sec the...Ch. 12.4 - An aqueous solution is 2.00 M urea. The density of...Ch. 12.5 - Naphthalene, C10H8, is used to make mothballs....Ch. 12.5 - Suppose you need to boil a water-based solution at...Ch. 12.6 - How many grams of ethylene glycol, CH2OHCH2OH,...Ch. 12.6 - A 0.930-g sample of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was...Ch. 12.6 - A 0.205-g sample of white phosphorus was dissolved...Ch. 12.7 - Calculate the osmotic pressure at 20C of an...Ch. 12.7 - Explain why pickles are stored in a brine (salt)...Ch. 12.8 - Estimate the boiling point of a 0.050 m aqueous...Ch. 12.8 - Each of the following substances is dissolved in a...Ch. 12.9 - Colloidal sulfur particles are negatively charged...Ch. 12.9 - If electrodes that are connected to a direct...Ch. 12 - Give one example of each: a gaseous solution, a...Ch. 12 - What are the two factors needed to explain the...Ch. 12 - Explain in terms of intermolecular attractions why...Ch. 12 - Explain why ionic substances show a wide range of...Ch. 12 - Using the concept of hydration, describe the...Ch. 12 - What is the usual solubility behavior of an ionic...Ch. 12 - Give one example of each: a salt whose heat of...Ch. 12 - What do you expect to happen to a concentration of...Ch. 12 - Explain why a carbonated beverage must be stored...Ch. 12 - Pressure has an effect on the solubility of oxygen...Ch. 12 - Four ways were discussed to express the...Ch. 12 - When two beakers containing different...Ch. 12 - Explain the process of fractional distillation to...Ch. 12 - Explain why the boiling point of a solution...Ch. 12 - List two applications of freezing-point...Ch. 12 - Explain the process of reverse osmosis to produce...Ch. 12 - One can often see sunbeams passing through the...Ch. 12 - Give an example of an aerosol, a foam, an...Ch. 12 - Explain on the basis that like dissolves like why...Ch. 12 - Explain how soap removes oil from a fabric.Ch. 12 - Calculate the number of moles of barium chloride...Ch. 12 - The mole fraction of copper(II) nitrate in an...Ch. 12 - If 291g of a compound is added to 1.02 kg of water...Ch. 12 - A 5.1-g sample of CaCl2 is dissolved in a beaker...Ch. 12 - Consider two hypothetical pure substances, AB(s)...Ch. 12 - Equal numbers of moles of two soluble, substances,...Ch. 12 - Even though the oxygen demands of trout and bass...Ch. 12 - You want to purchase a salt to melt snow and ice...Ch. 12 - Ten grams of the hypothetical ionic compounds XZ...Ch. 12 - Small amounts of a nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte...Ch. 12 - A Cottrell precipitator consists of a column...Ch. 12 - Consider the following dilute NaCl(aq) solutions....Ch. 12 - A green leafy salad wilts if left too long in a...Ch. 12 - People have proposed towing icebergs to arid parts...Ch. 12 - If l-mol samples of urea, a nonelectrolyte, sodium...Ch. 12 - Consider the following three beakers that contain...Ch. 12 - Give an example of a liquid solution prepared by...Ch. 12 - Give an example of a solid solution prepared from...Ch. 12 - Would boric acid, B(OH)3, be more soluble in...Ch. 12 - Would naphthalene, C10H8, be more soluble in...Ch. 12 - Arrange the following substances in order of...Ch. 12 - Indicate which of the following is more soluble in...Ch. 12 - Which of the following ions would be expected to...Ch. 12 - Which of the following ions would be expected to...Ch. 12 - Arrange the following alkaline-earth-metal iodates...Ch. 12 - Explain the trends in solubility (grams per 100 mL...Ch. 12 - The solubility of carbon dioxide in water is 0.161...Ch. 12 - Nitrogen, N2, is soluble in blood and can cause...Ch. 12 - How would you prepare 78.0 g of an aqueous...Ch. 12 - How would you prepare 455 g of an aqueous solution...Ch. 12 - What mass of solution containing 5.00% potassium...Ch. 12 - What mass of solution containing 6.50% sodium...Ch. 12 - Vanillin, C2H2O3, occurs naturally in vanilla...Ch. 12 - Lauryl alcohol, C12H25OH, is prepared from coconut...Ch. 12 - Fructose, C6H12O6, is a sugar occurring in honey...Ch. 12 - Caffeine. C8H10N4O2, is a stimulant found in tea...Ch. 12 - A 100.0-g sample of a brand of rubbing alcohol...Ch. 12 - An automobile antifreeze solution contains 2.50 kg...Ch. 12 - A bleaching solution contains sodium hypochlorite,...Ch. 12 - An antiseptic solution contains hydrogen peroxide,...Ch. 12 - Concentrated hydrochloric acid contains 1.00 mol...Ch. 12 - Concentrated aqueous ammonia contains 1.00 mol NH3...Ch. 12 - Oxalic acid, H2C2O4, occurs as the potassium or...Ch. 12 - Citric acid, H3C6H5O7, occurs in plants. Lemons...Ch. 12 - A solution of vinegar is 0.763 M acetic arid,...Ch. 12 - A beverage contains tartaric acid, H2C4H4O6, a...Ch. 12 - Calculate the vapor pressure at 35C of a solution...Ch. 12 - What is the vapor pressure at 23C of a solution of...Ch. 12 - What is the boiling point of a solution of 0.133 g...Ch. 12 - A solution was prepared by dissolving 0.800 g of...Ch. 12 - An aqueous solution of a molecular compound...Ch. 12 - Urea, (NH2)2CO, is dissolved in 250.0 g of water....Ch. 12 - A 0.0182-g sample of an unknown substance was...Ch. 12 - A solution contains 0.0653 g of a compound in 8.31...Ch. 12 - Safrole is contained in oil of sassafras and was...Ch. 12 - Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is used as an...Ch. 12 - Dextran is a polymeric carbohydrate produced by...Ch. 12 - Arginine vasopressin is a pituitary hormone. It...Ch. 12 - What is the freezing point of 0.0075 m aqueous...Ch. 12 - What is the freezing point of 0.0088 m aqueous...Ch. 12 - A 0.0140-g sample of an ionic compound with the...Ch. 12 - In a mountainous location, the boiling point of...Ch. 12 - Give the type of colloid (aerosol, foam, emulsion,...Ch. 12 - Give the type of colloid (aerosol, foam, emulsion,...Ch. 12 - Arsenic(III) sulfide forms a sol with a negative...Ch. 12 - Aluminum hydroxide forms a positively charged sol....Ch. 12 - A gaseous mixture consists of 87.0 mole percent N2...Ch. 12 - A natural gas mixture consists of 88.0 mole...Ch. 12 - An aqueous solution is 14.0% ammonium chloride,...Ch. 12 - An aqueous solution is 27.0% lithium chloride,...Ch. 12 - A 55-g sample of a gaseous fuel mixture contains...Ch. 12 - The diving atmosphere used by the U.S. Navy in its...Ch. 12 - A liquid solution consists of 0.30 mole fraction...Ch. 12 - What is the total vapor pressure at 20C of a...Ch. 12 - A sample of potassium aluminum sulfate 12-hydrate....Ch. 12 - A sample of aluminum sulfate 18-hydrate,...Ch. 12 - Urea, (NH2)2CO, has been used to melt ice from...Ch. 12 - Calcium chloride, CaCl2, has been used to melt ice...Ch. 12 - The osmotic pressure of blood at 37C is 7.7 atm. A...Ch. 12 - Maltose, C12H22O11, is a sugar produced by malting...Ch. 12 - Which aqueous solution has the lower freezing...Ch. 12 - Which aqueous solution has the lower boiling...Ch. 12 - Commercially, sulfuric acid is usually obtained as...Ch. 12 - Phosphoric acid is usually obtained as an 85%...Ch. 12 - A compound of manganese, carbon, and oxygen...Ch. 12 - A compound of cobalt, carbon, and oxygen contains...Ch. 12 - The carbohydrate digitoxose contains 48.64% carbon...Ch. 12 - Analysis of a compound gave 39.50% C, 2.21% H, and...Ch. 12 - Fish blood has an osmotic pressure equal to that...Ch. 12 - A salt solution has an osmotic pressure of 16...Ch. 12 - What is the difference between normal hemoglobin...Ch. 12 - What tends to happen to the hemoglobin in a blood...Ch. 12 - How are phospholipids similar in structure to a...Ch. 12 - How have chemists used these phospholipids to form...Ch. 12 - Two samples of sodium chloride solutions are...Ch. 12 - A sample of an ionic solid is dissolved in 1.00 kg...Ch. 12 - You have an aqueous, dilute solution of a...Ch. 12 - Consider the three ionic compounds, NaCl, KCl, and...Ch. 12 - The concentrations of pollutants are often...Ch. 12 - Which of the following ways of expressing...Ch. 12 - When 79.3 g of a particular compound is dissolved...Ch. 12 - What is the boiling point of a solution made by...Ch. 12 - At 15C and a partial pressure of 2.14 atm, the...Ch. 12 - Methanol, CH3OH, is a compound that is used in car...Ch. 12 - How many grams of potassium chloride must be added...Ch. 12 - Although somewhat toxic, barium chloride has been...Ch. 12 - Ethanol, CH3CH2OH, is known as grain alcohol and...Ch. 12 - A starch has a molar mass of 3.20 104 g/mol. If...Ch. 12 - An aqueous solution is 0.797 M magnesium chloride....Ch. 12 - A CaCl2 solution at 25C has an osmotic pressure of...Ch. 12 - An experimenter makes up a solution of 0.375 mol...Ch. 12 - An experimenter makes up a solution of 0.360 mol...Ch. 12 - The lattice enthalpy of sodium chloride, H for...Ch. 12 - The lattice enthalpy of potassium chloride is 717...Ch. 12 - A solution is made up by dissolving 15.0 g...Ch. 12 - A solution is made up by dissolving 18.0 g...Ch. 12 - An aqueous solution is 15.0% by mass of copper(II)...Ch. 12 - An aqueous solution is 20.0% by mass of sodium...Ch. 12 - The freezing point of 0.0830 m aqueous acetic acid...Ch. 12 - The freezing point of 0.109 m aqueous formic acid...Ch. 12 - A compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen was...Ch. 12 - A compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen was...

Additional Science Textbook Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts
Show solutions
The nervous system cannot use fat as fuel. T F

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

How can errors in the cell cycle lead to cancer in humans?

Human Heredity: Principles and Issues (MindTap Course List)

U.S. life expectancy at birth is the highest in the world. _____ True _____ False

Nutrition Through the Life Cycle (MindTap Course List)

A 40.0-kg box initially at rest is pushed 5.00 m along a rough, horizontal floor with a constant applied horizo...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)

How is an erosional coast different from a depositional coast?

Oceanography: An Invitation To Marine Science, Loose-leaf Versin