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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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How do we determine the total number of valence electrons for an ion? Provide an example of an anion and a cation, and explain your answer.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

How to determine the total number of valence electrons for an ion should be explained with examples of cation and anion?

Concept Introduction:

The electron(s) present in the outermost shell, that is valence shell of an atom or ion is said to be the valence electron.

Explanation

The formation of ion takes place either by loss of electron or gaining of electron by an atom. The transfer of electron by an atom takes place in order to attain the stability in nature by completing their octet that is to possess eight electrons in their valence shell and attain the configuration of noble gases. The gaining of electron(s) from an atom results in the formation of anion whereas the cation results from the loss of electron(s) from an atom.

The metal generally loses electrons whereas non-metal generally gains electrons.

For example:

  • The atomic number of sodium, Na is 11. The electronic configuration is:.

Na:1s22s22p63s1Na:[Ne]3s1

The total number of valence electron in sodium = 1

So, in order to attain the noble gas configuration it loses 1 electron present in the valence shell that is 3s1 and results in the formation of sodium cation, Na+. The electronic configuration of Na+ is:

Na+:[Ne]

The total number of valence electron in sodium cation = 8 ( 2s22p6 )

  • The atomic number of chlorine, Cl is 17

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