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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399425
BuyFind

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399425

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Chapter
Section
Chapter 12, Problem 20ALQ
Textbook Problem
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In Section 12.10 of your text, the term “effective pairs" is used. What does this mean?

Expert Solution
Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The meaning of “effective pairs” that is mentioned in section 12.10 of the text is to be stated.

Concept Introduction:

The VSEPR model is based on an important assumption according to which, “In a molecule, the surrounding atoms and electrons should arranged in way that the central atom should feel minimum repulsion from all of them”. The shape in VSEPR model gives specific angles for the corresponding shapes.

Explanation of Solution

The meaning of effective pair corresponds to those electron pairs which are responsible for minimizing the repulsion and forms the exact geometry or shape of a molecule. According to VSEPR theory, the multiple bonds like double bond or triple bond are considered as the single electron pair or single bond. For example, in case of carbon dioxide, there are two double bonds present that means there are total four bond pairs in CO2 but it occupies only two places in which electrons are present as shown below

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Chapter 12 Solutions

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation
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Ch. 12 - hat is meant by a chemical bond?Ch. 12 - hy do atoms form bonds with one another? What can...Ch. 12 - ow does a bond between Naand Cldiffer from a bond...Ch. 12 - n your own words, what is meant by the term...Ch. 12 - xplain the difference between ionic bonding and...Ch. 12 - rue or false? In general, a larger atom has a...Ch. 12 - hy is there an octet rule (and what does actet...Ch. 12 - Does a Lewis structure tell which electrons came...Ch. 12 - If lithium and fluorine react, which has more...Ch. 12 - In a bond between fluorine and iodine, which has...Ch. 12 - We use differences in electronegative to account...Ch. 12 - Explain how you can use the periodic table to...Ch. 12 - Why do we only the consider the valence electrons...Ch. 12 - How do we determine the total number of valence...Ch. 12 - What is the main idea in the valence shell...Ch. 12 - The molecules NH3andBF3have the same general...Ch. 12 - How do we deal with multiple bonds in VSEPR...Ch. 12 - In Section 12.10 of your text, the term “effective...Ch. 12 - Consider the ions Sc3+,Cl,Ca2+,andS2.Match these...Ch. 12 - Write the name of each of the following shapes of...Ch. 12 - n general terms, what is a chemical band?Ch. 12 - he energy required to break a given chemical bond...Ch. 12 - hat sorts of elements react to form ionic...Ch. 12 - n general terms, what is a covalent bond?Ch. 12 - escribe the type of bonding that exists in the...Ch. 12 - ompare and contrast the bonding found in the...Ch. 12 - he relative ability of an atom in a molecule to...Ch. 12 - hat does it mean to say that a bond is polar? Give...Ch. 12 - bond between atoms having a (small/large)...Ch. 12 - What factor determines the relative level of...Ch. 12 - In each of the following groups, which element is...Ch. 12 - In each of the following groups. which element is...Ch. 12 - On the basis. of the electronegativity values...Ch. 12 - On the basis of the electronegativity values given...Ch. 12 - Which of the following molecules contain polar...Ch. 12 - Which of the following molecules contain polar...Ch. 12 - On the basis of the electronegativity values given...Ch. 12 - On the basis of the electronegativity values given...Ch. 12 - Which brand in each of the following pairs has the...Ch. 12 - Which hand in each of the following pairs has less...Ch. 12 - What is a dipole moment? 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For which of...Ch. 12 - In ionic bonding, the electrons are shared between...Ch. 12 - The geometric arrangement of electron pairs around...Ch. 12 - Arrange the following bonds from the least polar...Ch. 12 - in each case, which of the following pairs of...Ch. 12 - Which of the following statements is false...Ch. 12 - A(n) chemical bond represents the equal sharing of...Ch. 12 - For each of the following pairs of elements,...Ch. 12 - On the basis of the electronegativity values given...Ch. 12 - Which of the following molecules contain polar...Ch. 12 - On the basis of the electronegativity values given...Ch. 12 - he electrons involved in a CFbond could be...Ch. 12 - or each of the following bonds, draw a figure...Ch. 12 - hich of the following contains a metal ion that...Ch. 12 - hat simple ion dues each of the following elements...Ch. 12 - n the basis of their electron configurations,...Ch. 12 - hich noble gas has the same electron configuration...Ch. 12 - or each of the following pairs, indicate which is...Ch. 12 - rite the Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 12 - hat is the total number of valence electrons in...Ch. 12 - rite a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 12 - elect which of the following ions has the Lewis...Ch. 12 - rite a Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 12 - hemicals placed in a microwave oven and exposed to...Ch. 12 - hy is the molecular structure of H2Ononlinear,...Ch. 12 - or the indicated atom in each of the following...Ch. 12 - sing the VSEPR theory, predict the molecular...Ch. 12 - sing the VSEPR theory, media the molecular...Ch. 12 - or each of the following molecules, indicate the...Ch. 12 - sing the VSEPR theory, predict the molecular...Ch. 12 - sing the VSEPR theory, predict the molecular...Ch. 12 - hat is: the expected ground-state electron...Ch. 12 - onsider the following series of atoms or ions:...Ch. 12 - Classify the bonding in each of the following...Ch. 12 - ompare the electronegativities of each pair of...Ch. 12 - ist the bends PCl,PF,OF, and SiFfrom least polar...Ch. 12 - rrange the atoms and/or ions in the following...Ch. 12 - rite electron configurations for the most stable...Ch. 12 - hich of the following compounds or ions exhibit...Ch. 12 - he formulas of several chemical substances are...Ch. 12 - hat is potential energy? 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How...Ch. 12 - Schrodinger and de Broglie suggested a...Ch. 12 - Describe the general characteristics of the first...Ch. 12 - Use the wave mechanical picture of the hydrogen...Ch. 12 - Describe the sublevels and orbitals that...Ch. 12 - Describe electron spin. How does electron spin...Ch. 12 - Summarize the postulates of the wave mechanical...Ch. 12 - List the order in which the orbitals are filled as...Ch. 12 - Which are the valence electrons in an alum? Choose...Ch. 12 - Sketch the overall shape of the periodic table and...Ch. 12 - Using the general periodic table you developed in...Ch. 12 - What are the representative elements? In what...Ch. 12 - You have learned how the properties of the...Ch. 12 - In general, what do we mean by a chemical bond?...Ch. 12 - What do we mean by ionic bonding? Give an example...Ch. 12 - What do we mean by covalent bonding and polar...Ch. 12 - What is meant by electronegativity? How is the...Ch. 12 - What does it mean to say that a molecule has a...Ch. 12 - How is the attainment of a noble gas electron...Ch. 12 - Give evidence that ionic bonds are very strong....Ch. 12 - Why does a Lewis structure for a molecule show...Ch. 12 - In writing Lewis structures for molecules, what is...Ch. 12 - For three simple molecules of your own choice,...Ch. 12 - What does a double bond between two atoms...Ch. 12 - trong>40. Although many simple molecules fulfill...Ch. 12 - What do we mean by the geometric structure of a...Ch. 12 - An unknown element is a nonmetal and has: a...Ch. 12 - Which of the following has me smallest ionization...Ch. 12 - Write the electron configuration for the following...Ch. 12 - Based on the electron configuration of the simple...Ch. 12 - Draw the Lewis structure for each of the following...Ch. 12 - Which of the following statements is correct and...Ch. 12 - Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas react violently to...

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