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Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692
Chapter 12, Problem 25E
Textbook Problem
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Explain how each of the following home watertreatments works and what impurities are eliminated:

a. carbon filtration

b. water softening

c. reverse osmosis

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The functioning of the methods carbon filtration, water softening and reverse osmosis used for home treatment is to be explained, and the impurities they remove are to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Water is a common liquid that is present on the Earth.

It is also known as universal solvent. It can dissolve a wide range of organic and inorganic solutes.

Water is vital for the existence of all living animals. Without water, no life form can exist, it constitutes an important part of rivers, lakes, streams, clouds, snow and ice.

Water is truly an unusual molecule such that being a low molar mass compound, it exists as a liquid at room temperature and has an anonymously high boiling point.

Ice floats on water because it has a lower density than water.

Water contains some unwanted particles which can lead to diseases and other hostile effects on human health.

Numerous particles and microbes, such as bacteria can contaminate the water.

Biological contaminants: Some microbes can live in water and can cause various diseases like cholera, dysentery, and so on. Two examples of such microbes are Giardia and Legionella.

Inorganic contaminants: Some inorganic molecules can dissolve in water and make it impotable (not suited for drinking). Two examples of such molecules are Nitrates and Asbestos.

Organic contaminants: Some organic molecules can dissolve in water and makes it impotable (not suited for drinking). Two examples of such molecules are chlorohydrocarbons (volatile) and ethylbenzene (non-volatile).

Radioactive contaminants: Some radioactive elements can dissolve in water and make it impotable (not suited for drinking). Two examples of such elements are Uranium and Radium.

Contaminants that pose immediate health risks are the biological contaminants and inorganic contaminants because they get immediately dissolved in blood and starts reacting with it.

Contaminants that can be eliminated by boiling are the biological contaminants because the microbes can be killed by increasing the temperature.

Drinking water is made safe by using some techniques such as filtration, sedimentation and so on.

Drinking water is also made safer at homes by using carbon filtration, water softening and reverse osmosis.

Ground water contains salts of magnesium and calcium, and is also known as hard water.

Hard water prevents the action of soap and cannot be used for cleansing actions.

Explanation of Solution

(a) The working of the technique of carbon filtration.

Carbon filters contains carbon particles which react with particles present in water. They are small in size. So, they can be directly attached to taps. Activated carbon is used to remove organic waste and chlorine. This removes unpleasant taste and odor.

(b) The working of the water softener.

Hard water is treated with zeolites which contain sodium salts that make the hard water softer...

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Chapter 12 Solutions

Chemistry In Focus
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Ch. 12 - A representation of liquid water is shown below....Ch. 12 - A mixture initially contains equal masses of...Ch. 12 - An older home has lead pipes. Should you boil the...Ch. 12 - Why are liquid drops spherical in shape?Ch. 12 - Would there be solids and liquids if cohesive...Ch. 12 - From a molecular viewpoint, explain the...Ch. 12 - Explain evaporation from a molecular point of...Ch. 12 - Define each of the following: a. boiling point b....Ch. 12 - Describe the relationship between intermolecular...Ch. 12 - Define each of the following intermolecular forces...Ch. 12 - Why do oil and water not mix?Ch. 12 - Explain how soap works.Ch. 12 - Define volatile and nonvolatile. How are these...Ch. 12 - Why does sweating cool the human body?Ch. 12 - Define each of the following: a. solution b....Ch. 12 - What are the unique properties of water? Why are...Ch. 12 - Where did Earths water come from?Ch. 12 - Explain the hydrologic cycle.Ch. 12 - What are the impurities present in hard water?...Ch. 12 - What are the common classifications of water based...Ch. 12 - How does a water softener work?Ch. 12 - List the four types of contaminants commonly found...Ch. 12 - Which water contaminants pose immediate health...Ch. 12 - What steps should be taken to minimize intake from...Ch. 12 - What is the SDWA?Ch. 12 - Explain how drinking water is treated before being...Ch. 12 - Is home water treatment necessary for health...Ch. 12 - Explain how each of the following home...Ch. 12 - Explain the concerns that groups like the EWG or...Ch. 12 - Butane is a gas at room temperature, and hexane is...Ch. 12 - One of the following molecules is a solid at room...Ch. 12 - Which compound would you expect to have the...Ch. 12 - Which compound would you expect to have the...Ch. 12 - All the following are liquids at room temperature....Ch. 12 - Which liquid would you expect to be least...Ch. 12 - Classify each molecule as polar or nonpolar:...Ch. 12 - Classify each molecule as polar or nonpolar:...Ch. 12 - What are the criteria used by the perfume industry...Ch. 12 - Two nonpolar substances with similar structures...Ch. 12 - What is the molarity of a solution that contains...Ch. 12 - What is the molarity of a solution that contains...Ch. 12 - How many grams of sucrose (C12H22O11) are present...Ch. 12 - How many grams of glucose (C6H12O6) are present in...Ch. 12 - How many grams of NaCl are present in 225mLofa2.3%...Ch. 12 - How many grams of NaF are present in 4.5 L of a...Ch. 12 - A 250-g sample of hard water contains...Ch. 12 - A 15-g sample of water contains 1.110-3gofCaCO3....Ch. 12 - Tap water is often fluoridated with a sodium...Ch. 12 - A softened water sample contains 245 ppm Na. If a...Ch. 12 - A 475-mL sample of water is extracted from a well...Ch. 12 - A 255-mL sample of water is taken from a tap and...Ch. 12 - A water sample is found to be high in lead...Ch. 12 - Your water provider posts an alert in the local...Ch. 12 - The quote by Roger Joseph Boscovich at the...Ch. 12 - Explain the difference between a polar molecule...Ch. 12 - The EPA has become concerned over the use of lead...Ch. 12 - When water is boiled, it is converted into a gas....Ch. 12 - Suppose a perfume contained the following two...Ch. 12 - Explain what you think might be occurring in dry...Ch. 12 - Over half of our nations drinking water contains...Ch. 12 - The following drawing shows a molecular view of a...

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