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Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692
Chapter 12, Problem 28E
Textbook Problem
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One of the following molecules is a solid at room temperature. Which one? Why?

a . Br 2 b . I 2 c- F 2 d . Cl 2

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The molecule which exists as solid at room temperature is to be determined out of the four given options.

Concept Introduction:

A hydrocarbon is organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

Butane and hexane both are hydrocarbon. Butane is a four-carbon alkane and hexane contains six carbon atoms.

The temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere is called boiling point.

Boiling point of a molecule depends on the intermolecular forces and thermal energy.

Intermolecular forces are of two types: dispersion forces and dipole forces.

Dispersion forces are possessed by all the atoms or molecules, which depend on the molar mass.

Dipole forces exist between polar molecules, which depend on the polarity of the molecules.

Intermolecular forces keep the molecules together. Greater the intermolecular force, higher is the boiling point.

All atoms and molecules possess dispersion forces which depend upon their molar mass.

Polar molecules possess dipole forces between them which depend upon the polarity of the molecules.

A molecular formula consists of the chemical symbols for the constituent elements followed by numeric subscripts describing the number of atoms of each element present in the molecule.

Dispersion forces are weak intermolecular forces and are considered van der waals forces.

Temporary dipoles can occur in non-polar molecules when the electrons that constantly orbit the nucleus occupy a similar location by chance.

Higher the molar mass, higher is the magnitude of the dispersion forces, and hence, higher is the boiling point.

Molecules which have lower molar masses have lower dispersion forces because dispersion force is directly proportional to the molar mass.

Molecules which have higher molar masses have higher dispersion forces.

Explanation of Solution

Reason for correct option:

Molecules which have a lower molar mass have lower dispersion forces because it depends on the molar mass. Molecules which have a higher molar mass have higher dispersion forces.

All the molecules Br2, I2, F2, Cl2 belong to the same group, but I2 molecule has the highest molar mass. So, dispersion forces between the molecules I2 are high

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Chemistry In Focus
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