   Chapter 12, Problem 30QAP Chemistry: Principles and Reactions

8th Edition
William L. Masterton + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305079373

Solutions

Chapter
Section Chemistry: Principles and Reactions

8th Edition
William L. Masterton + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305079373
Textbook Problem

The reversible reaction between hydrogen chloride gas and one mole of oxygen gas produces steam and chlorine gas: N 2 ( g ) + 3 H 2 ( g ) ⇌ 2 NH 3 ( g ) K at a certain temperature is 3 .7×10 − 4 . Predict the direction in which the system will move to reach equilibrium if one starts with(a) P N 2 = P H 2 = P NH 3 = 0.01     atm (b) P NH 3 = 0.0045     atm (c) P N 2 = 1.2   atm,   P H 2 = 1.88   atm,   P NH 3 = 0.0058   atm

Interpretation Introduction

(a)

Interpretation:

The direction of equilibrium needs to be determined for the given partial pressures of nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia gas.

Concept introduction:

The system is said to be in equilibrium if the there is no change in the partial pressure or concentration of reactant and product takes place.

For a general reaction as follows:

A(g)+B(g)C(g)+D(g)

The expression for the equilibrium constant is represented as follows:

K=(PC)(PD)(PA)(PB)

Here, to calculate the equilibrium constant, the values of partial pressure of all the species in reactant and product side are required.

If the value of reaction quotient of a reaction is less than the equilibrium constant, the reaction moves to forward direction and if the reaction quotient is more than equilibrium constant, the reaction moves to backward direction.

Explanation

The given equilibrium reaction with the equilibrium constant is as follows:

N2(g)+3H2(g)2NH3(g)          K=3.7×104

The partial pressures of nitrogen gas, hydrogen gas and ammonia gas are given 0.01 atm on putting the values, the reaction quotient can be calculated as follows:

Q=(PNH3

Interpretation Introduction

(b)

Interpretation:

The direction of equilibrium needs to be determined for the given partial pressure of ammonia.

Concept introduction:

The system is said to be in equilibrium if the there is no change in the partial pressure or concentration of reactant and product takes place.

For a general reaction as follows:

A(g)+B(g)C(g)+D(g)

The expression for the equilibrium constant is represented as follows:

K=(PC)(PD)(PA)(PB)

Here, to calculate the equilibrium constant, the values of partial pressure of all the species in reactant and product side are required.

If the value of reaction quotient of a reaction is less than the equilibrium constant, the reaction moves to forward direction and if the reaction quotient is more than equilibrium constant, the reaction moves to backward direction.

Interpretation Introduction

(c)

Interpretation:

The direction of equilibrium needs to be determined for the given partial pressures of nitrogen gas, hydrogen gas and ammonia gas.

Concept introduction:

The system is said to be in equilibrium if the there is no change in the partial pressure or concentration of reactant and product takes place.

For a general reaction as follows:

A(g)+B(g)C(g)+D(g)

The expression for the equilibrium constant is represented as follows:

K=(PC)(PD)(PA)(PB)

Here, to calculate the equilibrium constant, the values of partial pressure of all the species in reactant and product side are required.

If the value of reaction quotient of a reaction is less than the equilibrium constant, the reaction moves to forward direction and if the reaction quotient is more than equilibrium constant, the reaction moves to backward direction.

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