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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Classify each of the following materials as falling into one of the categories listed in Table 12.2. What particles make up these solids, and what are the forces of attraction between particles? Give one physical property of each.

  1. (a) Si doped with P
  2. (b) graphite
  3. (c) benzoic acid, C6H5CO2H
  4. (d) Na2SO4

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Material falling into categories has to be listed and the particles that make up these solids with forces of attraction between particles with examples have to be explained.

Concept introduction:

There are six type of solid material is existing which are given below,

Metallic solid:

Metallic solid is high melting points, range from soft and malleable to very hard, which are good conductors of electricity. In the metallic solid, metal atoms are electrostatic forces between metal ions and the free electrons.

Ionic solid:

Ionic solid has very high melting points

Ionic solids are brittleness and poor conductors in the solid state. In ionic solid, the force of attraction between the ions.

Molecular solid:

Molecular solids melt closer to 300 °C, which is can be either ductile or brittle. Many molecular solids have a large band gap between the valence band and conduction band. The consistent forces that bind the molecules together are van der Waals forces, dipole-dipole interactions, quadrupole interactions, π-π interactions, hydrogen bonding.

Network solid:

Network solid has very high melting point, which are very hard, which are insoluble in water and organic solvents. Chemical compounds, the atoms are bonded covalently in a continuous network in solid.

Amorphous solid:

In these solids particles are randomly arranged in three dimensions, does not have sharp melting points, which forms due to sudden cooling of liquid. Atoms are covalently bonded network.

Alloy solid:

Alloy solid is high melting points, which are good conductors of electricity. Two or more metal atoms are electrostatic forces between metal ions and the free electrons.

Explanation
  1. (a) Silicon doped with phosphorus:

    Silicon doped with phosphorus is Network type of solid which are covalently bonded atoms, the force of attraction between the atoms purely covalent bonds and the physical property of Silicon doped with phosphorus is used as a semiconductor.

  2. (b) Graphite:

    Graphite is network solid, which are covalent bonds, the force of attraction between the atoms is directional electron – pair bonds, and the physical property of Graphite is wide range of hardness and melting points.

  3. (c) Benzoic acid:

    Benzoic acid is Molecular type of solid which are covalently bonded atoms, the force of attraction between the atoms is hydrogen bonding interaction and the physical property of Benzoic acid is soft and poor conductivity...

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