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BPA and Abnormal Meiosis In 1998, researchers at Case Western University were studying meiosis in mouse oocytes (germ cells) when they saw an unexpected and dramatic increase of abnormal events ( FIGURE 12.6 ). Improper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis is one of the main causes or human genetic disorders. The spike in abnormal meiosis began right after the mouse facility started washing the animals' plastic cages and water bottles in a new, alkaline detergent. The detergent had damaged the plastic, which as a result was leaching bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is a synthetic chemical that mimics estrogen, the main female sex hormone in animals. Though it has since been banned for use in baby bottles, BPA is still widely used to manufacture other plastic items and epoxies (such as the coating on the inside of metal cans of food). BPA-free plastics are often manufactured with a related compound, bisphenol S (BPS), that has effects similar to BPA. FIGURE 12.6 Abnormalities in meiosis that occurred after exposure to BPA. Top, the most abnormal meiosis events occurred in mice that were housed in damaged plastic caging with damaged plastic bottles. Damaged plastic releases BPA. Bottom, fluorescent micrographs show the chromosomes (red) and spindle (green) in nuclei of mouse germ cells in metaphase I. A Normal metaphase; B–D abnormal metaphase. What is abnormal about metaphase I as it is occurring in the oocytes shown in FIGURE 12.6B , C , and D ?

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Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337408332

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337408332
Chapter 12, Problem 3DAA
Textbook Problem
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BPA and Abnormal Meiosis In 1998, researchers at Case Western University were studying meiosis in mouse oocytes (germ cells) when they saw an unexpected and dramatic increase of abnormal events (FIGURE 12.6). Improper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis is one of the main causes or human genetic disorders.

The spike in abnormal meiosis began right after the mouse facility started washing the animals' plastic cages and water bottles in a new, alkaline detergent. The detergent had damaged the plastic, which as a result was leaching bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is a synthetic chemical that mimics estrogen, the main female sex hormone in animals. Though it has since been banned for use in baby bottles, BPA is still widely used to manufacture other plastic items and epoxies (such as the coating on the inside of metal cans of food). BPA-free plastics are often manufactured with a related compound, bisphenol S (BPS), that has effects similar to BPA.

Chapter 12, Problem 3DAA, BPA and Abnormal Meiosis In 1998, researchers at Case Western University were studying meiosis in

FIGURE 12.6 Abnormalities in meiosis that occurred after exposure to BPA.

Top, the most abnormal meiosis events occurred in mice that were housed in damaged plastic caging with damaged plastic bottles. Damaged plastic releases BPA.

Bottom, fluorescent micrographs show the chromosomes (red) and spindle (green) in nuclei of mouse germ cells in metaphase I. A Normal metaphase; B–D abnormal metaphase.

What is abnormal about metaphase I as it is occurring in the oocytes shown in FIGURE 12.6B, C, and D?

Summary Introduction

To determine: The abnormality of metaphase I that takes place in the oocytes shown in the Figure 12.6B, C, and D.

Introduction: BPA is a synthetic chemical that mimics the female sex hormone—estrogen—that is found in the animals. Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in manufacturing of different plastics including polycarbonate plastics such as dental sealants, baby bottles, and food and drink containers. Research studies show that these chemicals possess capability to disrupt the meiotic division and then damage the reproductive function of the organism (experiments conducted in the mice oocytes).

Explanation of Solution

In the given experiment, researchers had found that a changed alkaline detergent caused damage to the plastic and resulted in leaching of BPA chemical. BPA that mimics the estrogen hormone induces meiotic abnormalities in the mice oocytes. The experiment was conducted with plastic-damaged cage and a control of new cage. Along with that, they used glass bottles as control with the damaged ones.

Refer Fig. 12.6, “Abnormalities in meiosis that occurred after exposure to BPA”, in the textbook. The red color represents the chromosomes, and the green color represents the meiotic spindle of the mice oocytes. During the Metaphase I in the cell division, the chromosome pair (bivalents) becomes aligned on the metaphase plate and then attaches to the totally formed meiotic spindle...

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