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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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What do we mean by the geometric structure of a molecule? Draw the geometric structures of at least four simple molecules of your choosing and indicate the bond angles in the structures. Explain the main ideas of the valence shelf electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory. Using several examples, explain how you would apply the VSEPR theory to predict their geometric structures.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Geometric structure of a molecule should be defined. Geometric structures of four simple molecules should be drawn and the bond angles should be indicated. The main idea of valence shell electron pair repulsion theory should be explained. Using several examples, how VSEPR theory is applied to predict their geometric structure should be explained.

Concept Introduction:

In determine the shapes of molecules; the first step is to draw the Lewis structure. The Lewis structure indicates the bonding electron pairs and the nonbonding electron pairs. Then, to the Lewis structure, the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSPER) theory is applied to determine the molecular geometry and the electron-group geometry. In order to identify the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule, we need to know about the bond angle also. The valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory states that bonding and non-bonding electron pairs repel each other so that electron pairs will move apart as far from each other as possible to minimize this repulsion.

Explanation

In deducing the geometric structure of CO32, we should first draw the Lewis structure of it.

Then we should count the pairs of electrons and arrange them in the way that minimizes repulsions. The CO32 molecule has 4 pairs of electrons around the carbon atom. Two double bonding pairs and another two single bonding pairs. Therefore, best electron pair arrangement for the CO32 molecule is Trigonal planar. Then we should determine the position of the atoms from the way the electron pairs are shared. It is shown in the figure. Finally the name of the molecular structure should be determined from the position of the atoms. Since this molecule’s central atom does not have any lone pairs, molecular geometry is equal to the electron pair geometry

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