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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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For each of the following pairs, indicate which species is smaller. Explain your reasoning in terms of the electron structure of each species.

msp;  a .  H or H                                                         c .  Al or Al 3 + b .  N or N 3                                                       d .  F or Cl

Interpretation Introduction

(a)

Interpretation:

The species that is smaller between the given pair is to be predicted and an explanation for the correct choice in terms of electron structure is to be stated.

Concept Introduction:

Compounds formed from ions are known as ionic compounds. The compound consists of the cation and anion. Cation is the positively charged ion and anion is negatively charged ion.

Cations are always smaller than the atoms from which they are formed because they have lesser number of electrons than the parent atom due to which the force of attraction between protons and electrons increases and size decreases.

Anions are always larger than the atoms from which they are formed because they have more number of electrons than the parent atom due to which the repulsion between the electrons increases, the force of attraction between protons and electrons, decreases, and the size increases.

Explanation

Anions are negatively charged and are formed when an atom gains electrons to get stable. Thus, the anions have more number of electrons than the parent atom. This results in the increased repulsion between the electrons and decreased effective nuclear charge between the protons and electrons. Thus the anions are always larger than the atom from which they are formed. The electron configuration of H is 1s1

Interpretation Introduction

(b)

Interpretation:

The species that is smaller between the given pair is to be predicted and an explanation for the correct choice in terms of electron structure is to be stated.

Concept Introduction:

Compounds formed from ions are known as ionic compounds. The compound consists of the cation and anion. Cation is the positively charged ion and anion is negatively charged ion.

Cations are always smaller than the atoms from which they are formed because they have lesser number of electrons than the parent atom due to which the force of attraction between protons and electrons increases and size decreases.

Anions are always larger than the atoms from which they are formed because they have more number of electrons than the parent atom due to which the repulsion between the electrons increases, the force of attraction between protons and electrons, decreases, and the size increases.

Interpretation Introduction

(c)

Interpretation:

The species that is larger between the given pair is to be predicted and explanation for the correct choice is to be stated.

Concept Introduction:

Compounds formed from ions are known as ionic compounds. The compound consists of the cation and anion. Cation is the positively charged ion and anion is negatively charged ion.

Cations are always smaller than the atoms from which they are formed because they have lesser number of electrons than the parent atom due to which the force of attraction between protons and electrons increases and size decreases.

Anions are always larger than the atoms from which they are formed because they have more number of electrons than the parent atom due to which the repulsion between the electrons increases, the force of attraction between protons and electrons, decreases, and the size increases.

Interpretation Introduction

(d)

Interpretation:

The species that is larger between the given pair is to be predicted and explanation for the correct choice is to be stated.

Concept Introduction:

Cations are always smaller than the atoms from which they are formed because they have lesser number of electrons than the parent atom due to which the force of attraction between protons and electrons increases and size decreases.

Anions are always larger than the atoms from which they are formed because they have more number of electrons than the parent atom due to which the repulsion between the electrons increases, the force of attraction between protons and electrons, decreases, and the size increases.

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