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Hydrogen for use in ammonia production is produced by the reaction CH 4 ( g ) + H 2 O ( g ) ⇌ 7 5 0 o C N i c a t a l y s t CO ( g ) + 3 H 2 ( g ) What will happen to a reaction mixture at equilibrium if a . H 2 O( g ) is removed? b. the temperature is increased (the reaction is endothermic)? c . an inert gas is added to a rigid reaction container? d . CO( g ) is removed? e . the volume of the container is tripled?

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 12, Problem 68E
Textbook Problem
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Hydrogen for use in ammonia production is produced by the reaction

CH 4 ( g ) + H 2 O ( g ) 7 5 0 o C N i c a t a l y s t CO ( g ) + 3 H 2 ( g )

What will happen to a reaction mixture at equilibrium if

a. H2O(g) is removed?

b. the temperature is increased (the reaction is endothermic)?

c. an inert gas is added to a rigid reaction container?

d. CO(g) is removed?

e. the volume of the container is tripled?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The reaction of production of H2(g) is given. The shift of equilibrium is to be predicted for given options.

Concept introduction: The state when the reactants involved in a chemical reaction and the products formed in the reaction exist in concentrations having no further tendency to change is known as an equilibrium state of the reaction.

According to Le Chatelier’s principle “When equilibrium is subjected to change in variable, the shift in the equilibrium is produced in the direction that nullifies the effect of change.”

To determine: The shift of equilibrium for the given reaction when H2O(g) is removed.

Explanation of Solution

Explanation

The stated reaction is,

CH2(g)+H2O(g)Nicatalyst750°C

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The reaction of production of H2(g) is given. The shift of equilibrium is to be predicted for given options.

Concept introduction: The state when the reactants involved in a chemical reaction and the products formed in the reaction exist in concentrations having no further tendency to change is known as an equilibrium state of the reaction.

According to Le Chatelier’s principle “When equilibrium is subjected to change in variable, the shift in the equilibrium is produced in the direction that nullifies the effect of change.”

To determine: The shift of equilibrium for the given reaction when temperature is increased (endothermic reaction).

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The reaction of production of H2(g) is given. The shift of equilibrium is to be predicted for given options.

Concept introduction: The state when the reactants involved in a chemical reaction and the products formed in the reaction exist in concentrations having no further tendency to change is known as an equilibrium state of the reaction.

According to Le Chatelier’s principle “When equilibrium is subjected to change in variable, the shift in the equilibrium is produced in the direction that nullifies the effect of change.”

To determine: The shift of equilibrium for the given reaction when inert gas is added.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The reaction of production of H2(g) is given. The shift of equilibrium is to be predicted for given options.

Concept introduction: The state when the reactants involved in a chemical reaction and the products formed in the reaction exist in concentrations having no further tendency to change is known as an equilibrium state of the reaction.

According to Le Chatelier’s principle “When equilibrium is subjected to change in variable, the shift in the equilibrium is produced in the direction that nullifies the effect of change.”

To determine: The shift of equilibrium for the given reaction when CO(g) is removed.

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The reaction of production of H2(g) is given. The shift of equilibrium is to be predicted for given options.

Concept introduction: The state when the reactants involved in a chemical reaction and the products formed in the reaction exist in concentrations having no further tendency to change is known as an equilibrium state of the reaction.

According to Le Chatelier’s principle “When equilibrium is subjected to change in variable, the shift in the equilibrium is produced in the direction that nullifies the effect of change.”

To determine: The shift of equilibrium for the given reaction when volume of reaction is tripled.

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Chapter 12 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 12 - Consider an equilibrium mixture of four chemicals...Ch. 12 - The boxes shown below represent a set of initial...Ch. 12 - For the reactionH2(g)+I2(g)2HI(g), consider two...Ch. 12 - Given the reactionA(g)+B(g)C(g)+D(g), consider the...Ch. 12 - Consider the reaction A(g)+2B(g)C(g)+D(g) in a...Ch. 12 - Consider the reactionA(g)+B(g)C(g)+D(g). A friend...Ch. 12 - Consider the following statements: Consider the...Ch. 12 - Le Chteliers principle is stated (Section 12-7) as...Ch. 12 - The value of the equilibrium constant K depends on...Ch. 12 - Consider an initial mixture of N2 and H2 gases...Ch. 12 - Consider the following reaction:...Ch. 12 - Consider the same reaction as in Question 11. In...Ch. 12 - Suppose a reaction has the equilibrium constant K...Ch. 12 - Suppose a reaction has the equilibrium constant K...Ch. 12 - Consider the following reaction at some...Ch. 12 - Consider the following generic reaction:...Ch. 12 - Explain the difference between K, Kp, and Q.Ch. 12 - Consider the following reactions:...Ch. 12 - For a typical equilibrium problem, the value of K...Ch. 12 - Which of the following statements is(are) true?...Ch. 12 - Write the equilibrium expression (K) for each of...Ch. 12 - Write the equilibrium expression (Kp) for each...Ch. 12 - At a given temperature, K = 1.3 102 for the...Ch. 12 - For the reaction H2(g)+Br2(g)2HBr(g) Kp = 3.5 104...Ch. 12 - For the reaction 2NO(g)+2H2(g)N2(g)+2H2O(g) it is...Ch. 12 - At high temperatures, elemental nitrogen and...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, a 3.0-L flask...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature a 2.00-L flask at...Ch. 12 - The following equilibrium pressures at a certain...Ch. 12 - The following equilibrium pressures were observed...Ch. 12 - At 327c, the equilibrium concentrations are...Ch. 12 - At 1100 K, Kp = 0.25 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - Write expressions for K and Kp for the following...Ch. 12 - Write expressions for Kp for the following...Ch. 12 - For which reactions in Exercise 33 is Kp equal to...Ch. 12 - For which reactions in Exercise 34 is Kp equal to...Ch. 12 - Consider the following reaction at a certain...Ch. 12 - In a study of the reaction...Ch. 12 - The equilibrium constant is 0.0900 at 25C for the...Ch. 12 - The equilibrium constant is 0.0900 at 25C for the...Ch. 12 - At 900c, Kp = 1.04 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - Ethyl acetate is synthesized in a nonreacting...Ch. 12 - For the reaction 2H2O(g)2H2(g)+O2(g) K = 2.4 103...Ch. 12 - The reaction 2NO(g)+Br2(g)2NOBr(g) has Kp = 109 at...Ch. 12 - A 1.00-L flask was filled with 2.00 moles of...Ch. 12 - A sample of S8(g) is placed in an otherwise empty...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, 12.0 moles of SO3 is...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, 8.0 moles of NO2 is...Ch. 12 - An initial mixture of nitrogen gas and hydrogen...Ch. 12 - Nitrogen gas (N2) reacts with hydrogen gas (H2) to...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, K = 3.75 for the...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, K = 1.00 102 for the...Ch. 12 - At 2200C, Kp = 0.050 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - At 25c, K = 0.090 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - At 1100 K, KP = 0.25 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, Kp = 0.25 for the...Ch. 12 - At 35C, K = 1.6 105 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - At o particular temperature, K = 4 .0 107 for the...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, K = 2.0 106 for the...Ch. 12 - Lexan is a plastic used to make compact discs,...Ch. 12 - At 25C, Kp. = 2.9 103 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - A sample of solid ammonium chloride was placed in...Ch. 12 - Suppose the reaction system...Ch. 12 - Predict the shift in the equilibrium position that...Ch. 12 - An important reaction in the commercial production...Ch. 12 - What will happen to the number of moles of SO3 in...Ch. 12 - In which direction will the position of the...Ch. 12 - Hydrogen for use in ammonia production is produced...Ch. 12 - Old-fashioned smelling salts consist of ammonium...Ch. 12 - Ammonia is produced by the Haber process, in which...Ch. 12 - Calculate a value for the equilibrium constant for...Ch. 12 - Given the following equilibrium constants at...Ch. 12 - Consider the decomposition of the compound C5H6O3...Ch. 12 - At 25C. Kp 1 1031 for the reaction a. Calculate...Ch. 12 - The gas arsine, AsH3, decomposes as follows:...Ch. 12 - At a certain temperature, K = 9.1 10-4 for the...Ch. 12 - At a certain temperature, K = 1.1 l03 for the...Ch. 12 - For the reaction PCl5(g)PCl3(g)+Cl2(g) at 600. K,...Ch. 12 - At 25C, gaseous SO2Cl2 decomposes to SO2(g) and...Ch. 12 - For the following reaction at a certain...Ch. 12 - Novelty devices for predicting rain contain...Ch. 12 - Consider the reaction Fe3+(aq)+SCN(aq)FeSCN2+(aq)...Ch. 12 - Chromium(VI) forms two different oxyanions, the...Ch. 12 - The synthesis of ammonia gas from nitrogen gas and...Ch. 12 - Suppose K = 4.5 103 at a certain temperature for...Ch. 12 - For the reaction below, Kp = 1.16 at 800C....Ch. 12 - Many sugars undergo a process called mutarotation,...Ch. 12 - Peptide decomposition is one of the key processes...Ch. 12 - The creation of shells by mollusk species is a...Ch. 12 - Methanol, a common laboratory solvent, poses a...Ch. 12 - For the reaction: 3O2(g)2O3(g) K = 1.8 107 at a...Ch. 12 - An equilibrium mixture contains 0.60 g solid...Ch. 12 - At a particular temperature, 8.1 moles of NO2 gas...Ch. 12 - A sample of solid ammonium chloride was placed in...Ch. 12 - In a given experiment, 5.2 moles of pure NOCl was...Ch. 12 - For the reactionN2O4(g)2NO2(g),Kp=0.25 at a...Ch. 12 - Consider the following exothermic reaction at...Ch. 12 - For the following endothermic reaction at...Ch. 12 - A 1.604-g sample of methane (CH4) gas and 6.400 g...Ch. 12 - A 4.72-g sample of methanol (CH3OH) was placed in...Ch. 12 - At 35C, K = 1.6 105 for the reaction...Ch. 12 - Nitric oxide and bromine at initial partial...Ch. 12 - At 25C. 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