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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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n your own words, what is meant by the term electronegativity? What are the trends across and down the periodic table for electronegativity? Explain them, and describe how they are consistent with trends of ionization energy and atomic radii.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The meaning of the term electronegativity and its explanation corresponding to the trends across and down the periodic table are to be stated. An explanation for its consistency with the trends of ionization energy and atomic radii is to be stated.

Concept Introduction:

Electronegativity difference aids in the unequal distribution of charges in a molecule. The high electronegativity difference results in the formation of ionic bonds, whereas low electronegativity difference generates polar bonds. The electronegativity of an element relies upon its place in the periodic table.

In larger atoms, the distance between the nucleus and the outermost shell is more, which decreases the tendency to attract electrons. Hence, the electronegativity of atoms gets smaller.

Explanation

Electronegativity is the ability of an element to gain electrons. Across the period, the value of electronegativity goes on increasing as elements require fewer electrons to acquire noble gas configuration. On moving from top to bottom in a group, the electronegativity of elements gets decreases due to the increase in the number of shells. It results in the increase of the distance between the nucleus and outermost shell, which further decreases the electronegativity of an element.

The atomic radii increase down the group due to an increase in a number of shells, whereas it decreases along the period from left to right due to the addition of electrons in the same valence shell.

Ionization enthalpy is defined as the amount of energy needed to eject the most loosely bound electron of an atom to form a cation. It depends on electronic configuration and nuclear charge. On moving down the group, as the atomic size increases, the number of the shell also increases. Thus, the force required to bind the electrons with the nucleus decreases. As a result, the ionization energy decreases with increase in atomic size...

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