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Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097
Textbook Problem

Which of the following reactions would you expect to proceed at a faster rate at room temperature? Why? (Hint: Think about which reaction would have the lower activation energy.)

2 Ce 4 + ( a q ) + Hg 2 2 + ( a q ) 2 Ce 3 + ( a q ) + 2 Hg 2 + ( a q ) H 3 O + ( a q ) + OH ( a q ) 2 H 2 O ( l )

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Two reactions are given. The reaction that proceeds at faster rate is to be identified. The answer is to be justified.

Concept introduction: The energy difference between activated complex and reactants is known as activation energy. The relationship between the rate of reaction and activation energy is given by the Arrhenius equation,

k=AeEaRT

To determine: The reaction that proceeds at faster rate from the given two reactions with proper reason.

Explanation

The minimum energy needed to start the reaction is known as activation energy.

The relationship between the rate of reaction andactivation energy is given by the Arrhenius equation.

k=AeEaRT

Where,

  • k is the rate constant.
  • A is the Arrhenius parameter.
  • Ea is the activation energy.
  • R is the universal gas constant.
  • T is the absolute temperature.

It is clear from the above equation that, rate of reaction is inversely proportional to activation energy at constant temperature. Higher the value of activation energy, slower will be the rate of reaction.

The following are the conditions required to make the product from reactant,

  • If this activation energy is less than or equal to that of kinetic energy of molecules upon collision, then breaking of bonds takes place and new product is formed.
  • If the relative orientation of reactants favors the formation of any new bond, then new product is formed.

The reaction of ions with similar charge has higher activation energy because it has the repulsive interaction.

Similarly,the reaction of ions with opposite charge has lower activation energy because it has the electrostatic interaction

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