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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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he first law of thermodynamics indicates that the total energy content of the universe is constant. If this is true, why do we worry about “energy conservation"? What do we mean by the quality of energy, rather than the quantity? Give an example. Although the quantity of energy in the universe may be constant, is the quality of that energy changing?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The reason as why there is worry about energy conservation if the first law of thermodynamics indicates that the total energy content of the universe is constant is to be stated. The meaning of quality of energy, rather than the quantity is to be stated along with examples. Whether the quality of energy in the universe is changing or not even though the quantity of energy may be constant is to be stated.

Concept Introduction:

Thermodynamic variables gives information regarding the spontaneity of chemical reactions. The first law of thermodynamics establishes the relationship between heat and work.

The expression for the first law of thermodynamics is shown below.

ΔU=QW.

Explanation

According to the first law of thermodynamics, energy is conserved in the universe. Thus, the total energy of the universe cannot be changed but its quality is degraded during the conversion processes, which is the cause of worry.

The quality of energy is the amount of mechanical work or work done which can be generated. Thus, quality deals with efficiency of the energy to do work. The total amount of the energy which is converted from one form into another form during the chemical processes is known as quantity of energy. Quantity of energy does not consider the quality of the energy.

The example is shown below.

gasolinel+O2gCO2

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