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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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hat do petroleum and natural gm consist of? Indicate some petroleum “fractions" and explain what they are used for. What does it mean to “crack" petroleum and why is this done? What was tetraethyl lead used for, and why has its use been drastically reduced? What is the greenhouse effect, and why are scientists concerned about it?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The constituents of petroleum and natural gas, petroleum “fractions” and the explanation corresponding to their uses are to be stated. The meaning of cracking petroleum and the reason as to why the cracking of petroleum is done are to be stated. The uses of tetraethyl lead and the reason of reduction in its use are to be stated. The explanation corresponding to the greenhouse effect and the reason as to why scientists are concerned about it are to be stated.

Concept Introduction:

Millions of years ago, dead organisms were embedded in the sea due to various tragedies such as flood and earthquake. These dead organisms were completely shielded with sand and clay. The absence of oxygen, high pressure and temperature converted them into natural gas and petroleum. In this way, the formation of petroleum takes place. Refining is the process, which is used to purify the desired substances. It removes the impurities from petroleum and it is followed by distillation that aid in the isolation of different fractions of petroleum.

Explanation

Natural gas is formed of combustion of gases containing hydrogen and carbon. It mainly comprised methane gas. However, it may also consist of small amount of butane, propane, ethane, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Generally, petroleum is composed of compounds of hydrogen and carbon (hydrocarbons) having different molecular weights and other organic substances.

Therefore, petroleumand natural gas mainly consist of hydrocarbons. However, traces of other organic compounds may be present in them.

Some petroleum fractions are paraffin wax, lubricating oil, kerosene oil and gasoline.

The uses of petroleum fractions are shown below.

  • Paraffin wax: It is used to form candles, wax paper and Vaseline.
  • Lubricating oil: It is used to decrease the friction between various components of machines.
  • Kerosene oil: It is used in pressure stoves and as a household fuel.
  • Gasoline: It is utilized as fuel in cars and bikes.

Therefore, some of the petroleum fractions consist of paraffin wax, lubricating oil, kerosene oil and gasoline. The petroleum fractions are used for various purposes such as cosmetics, lightening of the lamps and as the fuels.

The cracking of the petroleum is the process in which complex organic materials (mainly long chain hydrocarbons) are converted into simpler compounds by the breakdown of carbon-carbon bonds. The cracking of petroleum is done to produce light hydrocarbons which are useful in various ways. For example: Gasoline is used as fuel in vehicles. It is obtained by cracking of petroleum. Hence, cracking of petroleum is important...

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