Chapter 12.3, Problem 18E

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8th Edition

James Stewart

ISBN: 9781305266643

Textbook Problem

Find the angle between the vectors. (First find an exact expression and then approximate to the nearest degree.)

**18. a** = ⟨−1, 3, 4⟩, **b** = ⟨5, 2, 1⟩

To determine

**To find:** The angle between vectors

Explanation

**Given:**

**Formula:**

Write the expression to find

Here,

**a** vector,

**b** vector, and

**a** and **b**.

Rearrange the equation.

A minimum of two vectors are required to perform a dot product. The resultant dot product of two vectors is scalar. So, the dot product is also known as a scalar product.

Consider a general expression to find the dot product between two three-dimensional vectors.

Consider a general expression to find magnitude of a three-dimensional vector that is

Similarly, consider a general expression to find the magnitude of a three-dimensional vector, that is

In equation (2), substitute â€“1 for

Sect-12.1 P-1ESect-12.1 P-2ESect-12.1 P-3ESect-12.1 P-4ESect-12.1 P-5ESect-12.1 P-6ESect-12.1 P-7ESect-12.1 P-8ESect-12.1 P-9ESect-12.1 P-10E

Sect-12.1 P-11ESect-12.1 P-12ESect-12.1 P-13ESect-12.1 P-14ESect-12.1 P-15ESect-12.1 P-16ESect-12.1 P-17ESect-12.1 P-18ESect-12.1 P-19ESect-12.1 P-20ESect-12.1 P-21ESect-12.1 P-22ESect-12.1 P-23ESect-12.1 P-24ESect-12.1 P-25ESect-12.1 P-26ESect-12.1 P-27ESect-12.1 P-28ESect-12.1 P-29ESect-12.1 P-30ESect-12.1 P-31ESect-12.1 P-32ESect-12.1 P-33ESect-12.1 P-34ESect-12.1 P-35ESect-12.1 P-36ESect-12.1 P-37ESect-12.1 P-38ESect-12.1 P-39ESect-12.1 P-40ESect-12.1 P-41ESect-12.1 P-42ESect-12.1 P-43ESect-12.1 P-44ESect-12.1 P-45ESect-12.1 P-46ESect-12.1 P-47ESect-12.1 P-48ESect-12.2 P-1ESect-12.2 P-2ESect-12.2 P-3ESect-12.2 P-4ESect-12.2 P-5ESect-12.2 P-6ESect-12.2 P-7ESect-12.2 P-8ESect-12.2 P-9ESect-12.2 P-10ESect-12.2 P-11ESect-12.2 P-12ESect-12.2 P-13ESect-12.2 P-14ESect-12.2 P-15ESect-12.2 P-16ESect-12.2 P-17ESect-12.2 P-18ESect-12.2 P-19ESect-12.2 P-20ESect-12.2 P-21ESect-12.2 P-22ESect-12.2 P-23ESect-12.2 P-24ESect-12.2 P-25ESect-12.2 P-26ESect-12.2 P-27ESect-12.2 P-28ESect-12.2 P-29ESect-12.2 P-30ESect-12.2 P-31ESect-12.2 P-32ESect-12.2 P-33ESect-12.2 P-34ESect-12.2 P-35ESect-12.2 P-36ESect-12.2 P-37ESect-12.2 P-38ESect-12.2 P-39ESect-12.2 P-40ESect-12.2 P-41ESect-12.2 P-42ESect-12.2 P-43ESect-12.2 P-44ESect-12.2 P-45ESect-12.2 P-46ESect-12.2 P-47ESect-12.2 P-48ESect-12.2 P-49ESect-12.2 P-50ESect-12.2 P-51ESect-12.2 P-52ESect-12.3 P-1ESect-12.3 P-2ESect-12.3 P-3ESect-12.3 P-4ESect-12.3 P-5ESect-12.3 P-6ESect-12.3 P-7ESect-12.3 P-8ESect-12.3 P-9ESect-12.3 P-10ESect-12.3 P-11ESect-12.3 P-12ESect-12.3 P-13ESect-12.3 P-14ESect-12.3 P-15ESect-12.3 P-16ESect-12.3 P-17ESect-12.3 P-18ESect-12.3 P-19ESect-12.3 P-20ESect-12.3 P-21ESect-12.3 P-22ESect-12.3 P-23ESect-12.3 P-24ESect-12.3 P-25ESect-12.3 P-26ESect-12.3 P-27ESect-12.3 P-28ESect-12.3 P-29ESect-12.3 P-30ESect-12.3 P-31ESect-12.3 P-32ESect-12.3 P-33ESect-12.3 P-34ESect-12.3 P-35ESect-12.3 P-36ESect-12.3 P-37ESect-12.3 P-38ESect-12.3 P-39ESect-12.3 P-40ESect-12.3 P-41ESect-12.3 P-42ESect-12.3 P-43ESect-12.3 P-44ESect-12.3 P-45ESect-12.3 P-46ESect-12.3 P-47ESect-12.3 P-48ESect-12.3 P-49ESect-12.3 P-50ESect-12.3 P-51ESect-12.3 P-52ESect-12.3 P-53ESect-12.3 P-54ESect-12.3 P-55ESect-12.3 P-56ESect-12.3 P-57ESect-12.3 P-58ESect-12.3 P-59ESect-12.3 P-60ESect-12.3 P-61ESect-12.3 P-62ESect-12.3 P-63ESect-12.3 P-64ESect-12.3 P-65ESect-12.4 P-1ESect-12.4 P-2ESect-12.4 P-3ESect-12.4 P-4ESect-12.4 P-5ESect-12.4 P-6ESect-12.4 P-7ESect-12.4 P-8ESect-12.4 P-9ESect-12.4 P-10ESect-12.4 P-11ESect-12.4 P-12ESect-12.4 P-13ESect-12.4 P-14ESect-12.4 P-15ESect-12.4 P-16ESect-12.4 P-17ESect-12.4 P-18ESect-12.4 P-19ESect-12.4 P-20ESect-12.4 P-21ESect-12.4 P-22ESect-12.4 P-23ESect-12.4 P-24ESect-12.4 P-25ESect-12.4 P-26ESect-12.4 P-27ESect-12.4 P-28ESect-12.4 P-29ESect-12.4 P-30ESect-12.4 P-31ESect-12.4 P-32ESect-12.4 P-33ESect-12.4 P-34ESect-12.4 P-35ESect-12.4 P-36ESect-12.4 P-37ESect-12.4 P-38ESect-12.4 P-39ESect-12.4 P-40ESect-12.4 P-41ESect-12.4 P-42ESect-12.4 P-43ESect-12.4 P-44ESect-12.4 P-45ESect-12.4 P-47ESect-12.4 P-48ESect-12.4 P-49ESect-12.4 P-50ESect-12.4 P-51ESect-12.4 P-52ESect-12.4 P-53ESect-12.4 P-54ESect-12.5 P-1ESect-12.5 P-2ESect-12.5 P-3ESect-12.5 P-4ESect-12.5 P-5ESect-12.5 P-6ESect-12.5 P-7ESect-12.5 P-8ESect-12.5 P-9ESect-12.5 P-10ESect-12.5 P-11ESect-12.5 P-12ESect-12.5 P-13ESect-12.5 P-14ESect-12.5 P-15ESect-12.5 P-16ESect-12.5 P-17ESect-12.5 P-18ESect-12.5 P-19ESect-12.5 P-20ESect-12.5 P-21ESect-12.5 P-22ESect-12.5 P-23ESect-12.5 P-24ESect-12.5 P-25ESect-12.5 P-26ESect-12.5 P-27ESect-12.5 P-28ESect-12.5 P-29ESect-12.5 P-30ESect-12.5 P-31ESect-12.5 P-32ESect-12.5 P-33ESect-12.5 P-34ESect-12.5 P-35ESect-12.5 P-36ESect-12.5 P-37ESect-12.5 P-38ESect-12.5 P-39ESect-12.5 P-40ESect-12.5 P-41ESect-12.5 P-42ESect-12.5 P-43ESect-12.5 P-44ESect-12.5 P-45ESect-12.5 P-46ESect-12.5 P-47ESect-12.5 P-48ESect-12.5 P-49ESect-12.5 P-50ESect-12.5 P-51ESect-12.5 P-52ESect-12.5 P-53ESect-12.5 P-54ESect-12.5 P-55ESect-12.5 P-56ESect-12.5 P-57ESect-12.5 P-58ESect-12.5 P-59ESect-12.5 P-60ESect-12.5 P-61ESect-12.5 P-62ESect-12.5 P-63ESect-12.5 P-64ESect-12.5 P-65ESect-12.5 P-66ESect-12.5 P-67ESect-12.5 P-68ESect-12.5 P-69ESect-12.5 P-70ESect-12.5 P-71ESect-12.5 P-72ESect-12.5 P-73ESect-12.5 P-74ESect-12.5 P-75ESect-12.5 P-76ESect-12.5 P-77ESect-12.5 P-78ESect-12.5 P-79ESect-12.5 P-80ESect-12.5 P-81ESect-12.5 P-82ESect-12.5 P-83ESect-12.6 P-1ESect-12.6 P-2ESect-12.6 P-3ESect-12.6 P-4ESect-12.6 P-5ESect-12.6 P-6ESect-12.6 P-7ESect-12.6 P-8ESect-12.6 P-9ESect-12.6 P-10ESect-12.6 P-11ESect-12.6 P-12ESect-12.6 P-13ESect-12.6 P-14ESect-12.6 P-15ESect-12.6 P-16ESect-12.6 P-17ESect-12.6 P-18ESect-12.6 P-19ESect-12.6 P-20ESect-12.6 P-21ESect-12.6 P-22ESect-12.6 P-23ESect-12.6 P-24ESect-12.6 P-25ESect-12.6 P-26ESect-12.6 P-27ESect-12.6 P-28ESect-12.6 P-29ESect-12.6 P-30ESect-12.6 P-31ESect-12.6 P-32ESect-12.6 P-33ESect-12.6 P-34ESect-12.6 P-35ESect-12.6 P-36ESect-12.6 P-37ESect-12.6 P-38ESect-12.6 P-43ESect-12.6 P-44ESect-12.6 P-45ESect-12.6 P-46ESect-12.6 P-47ESect-12.6 P-48ESect-12.6 P-49ESect-12.6 P-50ESect-12.6 P-51ESect-12.6 P-52ECh-12 P-1RCCCh-12 P-2RCCCh-12 P-3RCCCh-12 P-4RCCCh-12 P-5RCCCh-12 P-6RCCCh-12 P-7RCCCh-12 P-8RCCCh-12 P-9RCCCh-12 P-10RCCCh-12 P-11RCCCh-12 P-12RCCCh-12 P-13RCCCh-12 P-14RCCCh-12 P-15RCCCh-12 P-16RCCCh-12 P-17RCCCh-12 P-18RCCCh-12 P-19RCCCh-12 P-1RQCh-12 P-2RQCh-12 P-3RQCh-12 P-4RQCh-12 P-5RQCh-12 P-6RQCh-12 P-7RQCh-12 P-8RQCh-12 P-9RQCh-12 P-10RQCh-12 P-11RQCh-12 P-12RQCh-12 P-13RQCh-12 P-14RQCh-12 P-15RQCh-12 P-16RQCh-12 P-17RQCh-12 P-18RQCh-12 P-19RQCh-12 P-20RQCh-12 P-21RQCh-12 P-22RQCh-12 P-1RECh-12 P-2RECh-12 P-3RECh-12 P-4RECh-12 P-5RECh-12 P-6RECh-12 P-7RECh-12 P-8RECh-12 P-9RECh-12 P-10RECh-12 P-11RECh-12 P-12RECh-12 P-13RECh-12 P-14RECh-12 P-15RECh-12 P-16RECh-12 P-17RECh-12 P-18RECh-12 P-19RECh-12 P-20RECh-12 P-21RECh-12 P-22RECh-12 P-23RECh-12 P-24RECh-12 P-25RECh-12 P-26RECh-12 P-27RECh-12 P-28RECh-12 P-29RECh-12 P-30RECh-12 P-31RECh-12 P-32RECh-12 P-33RECh-12 P-34RECh-12 P-35RECh-12 P-36RECh-12 P-37RECh-12 P-38RECh-12 P-1PCh-12 P-2PCh-12 P-5P

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