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Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759
BuyFind

Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759

Solutions

Chapter 13, Problem 13.2P
Textbook Problem

Answer true or false.

  1. Alkenes, alkynes, and arenes are unsaturated
  2. hydrocarbons.

  • Aromatic compounds were so named because many of them have pleasant odors.
  • According to the resonance model of bonding, benzene is best described as a hybrid of two equivalent contributing structures.
  • Benzene is a planar molecule.
  • Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (a)

    Interpretation:

    To analyse whether the given statement: Alkenes, alkynes and arenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons, is true or not.

    Concept Introduction:

    Hydrocarbons are those compounds in which only carbon and hydrogen atoms are present. It is classified as saturated hydrocarbon and unsaturated hydrocarbon.

    Saturated hydrocarbons are those in which carbon atoms are linked with single bond.

    The adjacent carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon having double and triple covalent bonds are known as unsaturated hydrocarbons.

    Answer to Problem 13.2P

    Alkenes, alkynes and arenes contain double and triple covalent bonds in its structures.

    Thus, the statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    The carbon present in the hydrocarbon atoms do not contain all possible hydrogen atom that they could have. The hydrocarbons alkenes have double bond and alkynes have triple bond. Arenes have benzene ring with three double bonds.

    Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (b)

    Interpretation:

    To analyse whether the given statement: Aromatic compounds were so named because of the pleasant order, is true or not.

    Concept Introduction:

    The aromatic compounds are cyclic with flat molecules which are conjugated near the ring. They contain resonance bond with increased stability.

    Answer to Problem 13.2P

    Aromatic compounds were not named because of the pleasant order.Thus, the statement is false.

    Explanation of Solution

    The aromatic compound has aromatic rings. Aromatic rings like pyridine, indole and benzene are present in the aromatic compound that exhibits high stability and hence the name aromatic compound. It is not connected with the aroma or the smell in the organic compound.

    Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (c)

    Interpretation:

    To analyse whether the given statement -According to the resonance model of bonding the benzene is a hybrid of two equivalent structures that contribute, is true or not.

    Concept Introduction:

    The benzene compound consists of a ring that has six carbon atoms which is bonded to one hydrogen atom. Functional group can be attached to the ring by replacing themselves in the place of hydrogen atoms.

    Answer to Problem 13.2P

    According to the resonance model of bonding the benzene is a hybrid of two equivalent structures that contribute. Thus, the statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    The benzene compound has two resonance structures where the molecules are not delocalized by electrons individually.

    With two resonance structure, the benzene compound do not exhibit electron delocalization when taken individually. The intermediate resonance structures are the real structures that are represented by the resonance hybrid. These hybrid structures are the intermediate contributing structures that make the benzene a hybrid of two equivalent structures.

    Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (d)

    Interpretation:

    To analyse whether the given statement: Benzene is a planar molecule, is true or not.

    Concept Introduction:

    The benzene compound consists of a ring that has six carbon atoms which is bonded to one hydrogen atom. Functional group can be attached to the ring by replacing themselves in the place of hydrogen atoms.

    Answer to Problem 13.2P

    Benzene is a planar molecule. Thus, the statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    They are trigonal planar molecules with the sp2 hybridized ring having 120° as the bond angle.

    The carbon atoms in the compound are attached to the ring which is flat planar hexagon. They are attached to the hydrogen atoms with the three double bonds that are alternate.

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    Chapter 13 Solutions

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
    Ch. 13 - 13-11 Explain why the compound 1,4-dichlorobenzene...Ch. 13 - 13-12 One analogy often used to explain the...Ch. 13 - 13-13 Answer true or false. A phenyl group has the...Ch. 13 - Prob. 13.14PCh. 13 - 13-15 Draw structural formulas for these compounds...Ch. 13 - 13-16 We say that naphthalene, anthracene,...Ch. 13 - 13-17 Following is the structural formula of...Ch. 13 - 13-18 Answer true or false. Benzene does not...Ch. 13 - 13-19 Suppose you have unlabeled bottles of...Ch. 13 - 13-20 Three products with the molecular formula...Ch. 13 - 13-21 The reaction of bromine with toluene in the...Ch. 13 - 13-22 What reagents and/or catalysts are necessary...Ch. 13 - 13-23 What reagents and/or catalysts are necessary...Ch. 13 - 13-24 Aromatic substitution can be done on...Ch. 13 - 13-25 Answer true or false. (a) Phenols and...Ch. 13 - 13-26 Both phenol and cyclohexanol are only...Ch. 13 - 13-27 Define autoxidation.Ch. 13 - 13*28 Autoxidation is described as a radical-chain...Ch. 13 - 13-29 Show that if you add Steps 2a and 2b of the...Ch. 13 - 13-30 How does vitamin E function as an...Ch. 13 - 13-31 What structural features are common to...Ch. 13 - 13*32 Black-and-white photography is a commercial...Ch. 13 - 13-33 Following is the structural formula of...Ch. 13 - 13-34 (Chemical Connections 13A) From what parts...Ch. 13 - 13-35 (Chemical Connections 13A) What are the...Ch. 13 - 13-36 (Chemical Connections 13A, Would you expect...Ch. 13 - 13-37 (Chemical Connections 13A) One of the...Ch. 13 - 13-38 (Chemical Connections 13A) What is meant by...Ch. 13 - 13-39 (Chemical Connections 13B) What is a...Ch. 13 - 13-40 (Chemical Connections 130 In the absence of...Ch. 13 - 13-41 (Chemical Connections 13D) Calculate the...Ch. 13 - 13-42 (Chemical Connections 13E) What are the...Ch. 13 - 13-43 (Chemical Connections 13E) Which features of...Ch. 13 - 13-44 (Chemical Connections 13E) What color would...Ch. 13 - 13-45 (Chemical Connections 13El Review the...Ch. 13 - 13-46 (Chemical Connections 13F) From what types...Ch. 13 - 13-47 (Chemical Connections 13F) Identify the...Ch. 13 - 13-48 (Chemical Connections 13F, How many...Ch. 13 - 13-49 (Chemical Connections 13F) In what ways is...Ch. 13 - 13*50 The structure for naphthalene given in...Ch. 13 - 13-51 Draw structural formulas for these...Ch. 13 - 13-52 2,6-Di-/ezY-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT,...Ch. 13 - 13-53 Write the structural formula for the product...Ch. 13 - 13-54 Styrene reacts with bromine to give a...Ch. 13 - 13-55 When toluene is treated with Br, in the...Ch. 13 - 13-56 Four alternatives to the structure of...Ch. 13 - 13-57 Benzene, as we have seen in this chapter, is...

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