Foundations of Astronomy (MindTap ...

14th Edition
Michael A. Seeds + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399920



Foundations of Astronomy (MindTap ...

14th Edition
Michael A. Seeds + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399920
Chapter 13, Problem 13RQ
Textbook Problem

Why haven’t white dwarfs already cooled to black dwarfs in our Galaxy?

To determine

The reasons behind the white dwarfs have not cooled to black dwarfs in our galaxy.

Explanation of Solution

A black dwarf is a stellar fragment, especially a white dwarf that has lost its heat and cooled sufficiently that it no more radiate the heat or light.

A white dwarf have huge amount of heat. So it will take billions of years to radiate that heat away to become black dwarfs.

The time needed for a white dwarf to become this stage is calculated to be more than the current age of the Universe...

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Chapter 13 Solutions

Foundations of Astronomy (MindTap Course List)
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Ch. 13 - All white dwarfs have masses in a small rangefrom...Ch. 13 - Which size object best represents the size of a...Ch. 13 - Why havent white dwarfs already cooled to black...Ch. 13 - How can white dwarfs be both very hot and have...Ch. 13 - How is a compact object different from a star?Ch. 13 - What can you infer has happened if you observe a...Ch. 13 - Why can a nova repeat whereas a supernova cannot...Ch. 13 - Why cant stars generate energy from iron fusion?Ch. 13 - Is fusion of the lightest element in the core of a...Ch. 13 - What processes produce type I supernovae? Type II...Ch. 13 - How do spectra show the difference between a type...Ch. 13 - Consider an isolated 30-Me main-sequence star. How...Ch. 13 - Consider an isolated 0.7-Me main-sequence star....Ch. 13 - How can some supernova remnants emit X-rays?Ch. 13 - How Do We Know? How can the ultimate causes of...Ch. 13 - Use the formula for stellar life expectancies Eq....Ch. 13 - If the 0.5-ME red dwarf in Problem 1 fuses 100...Ch. 13 - A red giant that was originally an 8-M...Ch. 13 - The white dwarf star Sirius B has a visual...Ch. 13 - Temperature on Earth is proportional to the fourth...Ch. 13 - The Ring Nebula in Lyra is a planetary nebula with...Ch. 13 - Suppose a planetary nebula is 1.0 pc in diameter,...Ch. 13 - A planetary nebula photographed 20 years ago and...Ch. 13 - Add a fourth column to Table 13-1 and write in the...Ch. 13 - The Crab Nebula is now 1.35 pc in radius and is...Ch. 13 - The Cygnus Loop is now 2.6 degrees in diameter and...Ch. 13 - The supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) is...Ch. 13 - Cassiopeia A has a radius of about 2.5 arc...Ch. 13 - The distance to SN 1987A is about 170,000 ly. How...Ch. 13 - If 1058 neutrinos are expected to have carried 99...Ch. 13 - Arrange the following by order of increasing...Ch. 13 - What processes caused a medium-mass star to...Ch. 13 - List the evolutionary stages as the Sun evolves...Ch. 13 - Look at the visual wavelength image and the...Ch. 13 - Look at Figure 13-6, which is a diagram of two...Ch. 13 - This image combines X-ray (blue), visual (green),...

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