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Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097

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Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097
Textbook Problem

The equilibrium constant is 0.0900 at 25°C for the reaction

H 2 O ( g ) + Cl 2 O ( g ) 2 HOCl ( g )

For which of the following sets of conditions is the system at equilibrium? For those that are not at equilibrium, in which direction will the system shift?

a. A 1.0-L flask contains 1.0 mole of HOCI, 0.10 mole of Cl2O, and 0.10 mole of H2O.

b. A 2.0-L flask contains 0.084 mole of HOCI, 0.080 mole of Cl2O, and 0.98 mole of H2O.

c. A 3.0-L flask contains 0.25 mole of HOCI, 0.0010 mole of Cl2O, and 0.56 mole of H2O.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The equilibrium constant value at 25°C for the stated reaction between H2O and Cl2O is 0.0900 . The values that correspond to a system at equilibrium are to be identified. The direction of shift for the reactions that are not at equilibrium is to be stated.

Concept introduction: The state when the reactants involved in a chemical reaction and the products formed in the reaction exist in concentrations having no further tendency to change is known as an equilibrium state of the reaction. When the equilibrium constant is expressed in terms of concentration, it is represented K . A reaction quotient is defined as a function of concentrations of the involved chemical species in a given chemical reaction. It is represented by ‘ Q ’. At equilibrium Q=K .

To determine: The concentrations of H2O , Cl2O and HOCl for the given reaction.

Explanation

Given

The stated reaction is,

H2O(g)+Cl2O(g)2HOCl(g)

The number of moles H2O is 0.10mole .

The number of moles Cl2O is 0.10mole .

The number of moles HOCl is 1.0mole .

The given volume of the flask is 1.0L .

The concentration of a reactant is calculated by the formula,

Concentration=MolesVolume(L)

For H2O ,

The concentration of H2O is calculated by the formula,

ConcentrationofH2O=MolesofH2OVolumeoftheflask(L)

Substitute the values of the number of moles of H2O and the volume of the flask in the above expression in the above

ConcentrationofH2O=0.10mole1.0L=0.10M_

For Cl2O ,

The concentration of Cl2O is calculated by the formula,

ConcentrationofCl2O=MolesofCl2OVolumeoftheflask(L)

Substitute the values of the number of moles of Cl2O and the volume of the flask in the above expression in the above

ConcentrationofCl2O=0.10mole1.0L=0

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The equilibrium constant value at 25°C for the stated reaction between H2O and Cl2O is 0.0900 . The values that correspond to a system at equilibrium are to be identified. The direction of shift for the reactions that are not at equilibrium is to be stated.

Concept introduction: The state when the reactants involved in a chemical reaction and the products formed in the reaction exist in concentrations having no further tendency to change is known as an equilibrium state of the reaction. When the equilibrium constant is expressed in terms of concentration, it is represented K . A reaction quotient is defined as a function of concentrations of the involved chemical species in a given chemical reaction. It is represented by ‘ Q ’. At equilibrium Q=K .

To determine: If the given values correspond to a system at equilibrium and the direction of shift if the reaction is not at equilibrium.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The equilibrium constant value at 25°C for the stated reaction between H2O and Cl2O is 0.0900 . The values that correspond to a system at equilibrium are to be identified. The direction of shift for the reactions that are not at equilibrium is to be stated.

Concept introduction: The state when the reactants involved in a chemical reaction and the products formed in the reaction exist in concentrations having no further tendency to change is known as an equilibrium state of the reaction. When the equilibrium constant is expressed in terms of concentration, it is represented K . A reaction quotient is defined as a function of concentrations of the involved chemical species in a given chemical reaction. It is represented by ‘ Q ’. At equilibrium Q=K .

To determine: If the given values correspond to a system at equilibrium and the direction of shift if the reaction is not at equilibrium.

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