BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692
Chapter 13, Problem 5E
Textbook Problem
4 views

List five common laboratory acids and their uses.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Five common laboratory acids and their uses are to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Acids are the ions or molecules capable of losing proton or hydrogen ion (H+) and their pH value is always less than 7. They contain positive metal ions and negative nonmetal ions held together by an ionic bond.

They are sour in taste and are good conductor of electricity.

They are corrosive in nature and produce hydrogen gas when reacted with metals.

There are generally of two types:

Strong acid: They are highly corrosive in nature, completely ionize in a solution, and may cause severe burns on the skin. Examples include hydrochloric acid (HCl), and so on.

Weak acid: They are mild in nature, partially ionize and rarely affect the skin. Examples include acetic acid (CH3COOH), and so on.

Explanation of Solution

Five common acids and their uses as:

i) Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)

Hydrochloric acid is also known as muriatic acid. This strong acid is highly corrosive in nature and causes severe burns, if it comes in contact with skin. It is a mono protic acid, means it ionizes to give a single proton. It ionizes completely that’s why it is categorized as strong acid.

The reaction is as follows:

HCl + H2 H3O+ + Cl 

Hydrochloric acid is routinely used in laboratories and in manufacturing industries. Some of its uses are as follows:

It effectively cleans the rust present on the metal surface. The reactive chloride ion (Cl) present in the acid is the key of effectively cleaning the metallic surface.

It used in food industry for preparation and purification of foods. For example, HCl plays an important role in preparation of gelatin, which is used as favoring agent, purification of common salt and so on.

It is used in refining of ores, that is, purification of an impure metal ore. The metals that are noble in nature are dissolved in aqua regia for refining process.

It is used for preparing house cleaning products for example glass cleaners, disinfectant cleaners and so on.

It is also present in our stomach where it performs many functions like killing microorganism etc.

ii) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)

Sulfuric acid is also called oil of vitriol or hydrogen sulfate. It is colorless, oily and corrosive acid and is widely used in laboratories and in industries. Sulfuric acid undergoes auto-protolysis, means proton transfer within identical molecules. It gives two proton on ionization.

The reaction is as follows:

2H2SO4  H3SO4+ + HSO4-

Some of the applications of sulfuric acid are as follows:

It plays an important role in the production of fertilizers like ammonium sulfate

((NH4)2SO4) and super phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2) is formed when treated with sulfuric

acid.

It also used in dye and pigment industry. Acid dyes are prepared from sulfuric acid. These dyes contain sulphonic groups, which are present as sodium sulfonic salts.

It is used for making of adhesives because the reaction which involves adhesives needs acidic medium. Sulfuric acid not only provides acidic medium to the reaction but also helps to precipitate the desirable product.

It is also used in manufacturing of other acids like hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and so on.

iii) Nitric acid (HNO3)

Nitric acid is a toxic, corrosive and fuming liquid. It is colorless liquid but sometimes it shows yellow color due to decomposition nitrogen oxides and water.

Nitric acid readily dissociates in water.

The reaction is as follows:

HNO3(aq) + H2O(l H3O+(aq) + NO3(aq)

The industrial applications of nitric acid are as follows:

It is chiefly used in fertilizer industry for the manufacturing of various fertilizers. Calcium ammonium nitrate 5Ca(NO3)2

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 13 Solutions

Chemistry In Focus
Show all chapter solutions
add
Ch. 13 - Why are bases not commonly found in foods?Ch. 13 - List four common laboratory bases and their uses.Ch. 13 - What are the Arrhenius definitions of acids and...Ch. 13 - What are the Brnsted-Lowry definitions of acids...Ch. 13 - What is the difference between a strong acid and a...Ch. 13 - The pH scale is a logarithmic scale. What is meant...Ch. 13 - What pH range is considered acidic? Basic?...Ch. 13 - What acid is responsible for the sour taste of...Ch. 13 - What is pickling? What acid is responsible for the...Ch. 13 - Where can you find acetic acid?Ch. 13 - What is aspirin? How does it work?Ch. 13 - List several common acids and where they might be...Ch. 13 - What acids are present in wines? What kind of...Ch. 13 - What is an alkaloid?Ch. 13 - What causes acid indigestion? List some common...Ch. 13 - How does an antacid work?Ch. 13 - Explain how a leavening agent works.Ch. 13 - Which pollutants are responsible for acid rain?...Ch. 13 - Why is rain acidic even in the absence of...Ch. 13 - How acidic is rain in the United States? Can this...Ch. 13 - Why can some lakes and soils tolerate acid rain...Ch. 13 - What are the effects of acid rain on the...Ch. 13 - What is being done to decrease the acidity of U.S....Ch. 13 - Write a chemical equation to show the...Ch. 13 - Write a chemical equation to show the...Ch. 13 - Identify the Brnsted-Lowry acid and base in each...Ch. 13 - Identify the Brnsted-Lowry acid and base in each...Ch. 13 - Write a chemical equation using Lewis structures...Ch. 13 - Write a chemical equation using Lewis structures...Ch. 13 - A chemist makes two solutions. One is a 0.01-MHCl...Ch. 13 - A chemist makes a 0.001-MNaOH solution and a...Ch. 13 - Give the pH that corresponds to each solution and...Ch. 13 - Give the pH that corresponds to each solution and...Ch. 13 - What is the [H3O+] in a solution with a pH of 4?Ch. 13 - What is the [H3O+] in a solution with a pH of 11?Ch. 13 - Write chemical reactions to show how each antacid...Ch. 13 - Write chemical reactions to show how each antacid...Ch. 13 - Suppose that the stomach contains...Ch. 13 - Suppose that 250.0 mL of a basic solution is 0.100...Ch. 13 - Write a chemical reaction to show how SO2 forms...Ch. 13 - Write a chemical reaction to show how NO2 forms...Ch. 13 - Write a short paragraph explaining why a person...Ch. 13 - Examine the household chemicals shelf at your...Ch. 13 - Determine from the following molecular view of a...Ch. 13 - Determine from the following molecular view of a...

Additional Science Textbook Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts
Show solutions add
The best way to control salt intake is to cut down on processed and fast foods. T F

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

All empty metal soap dish barely floats in water. A bar of Ivory soap floats in water. When the soap is stuck i...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)