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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Consider the following aqueous solutions:

(i) 0.20 m HOCH2CH2OH (nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte); (ii) 0.10 m CaCl2 (iii) 0.12 m KBr; and (iv) 0.12 m Na2SO4.

  1. (a) Which solution has the highest boiling point?
  2. (b) Which solution has the lowest freezing point?
  3. (c) Which solution has the highest water vapor pressure?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The aqueous solution with highest boiling point has to be determined from the given aqueous solutions.

Concept introduction:

Colligative properties: Properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it. Colligative properties are,

  • Decrease in the vapor pressure
  • Increase in the boiling point
  • Decline in the boiling point
  • Osmotic pressure

Decline in the boiling point is huge when solute is an electrolyte than when solute is nonelectrolyte.

van’t Hoff factor, i: it is the ration between change in in boiling point measured and change in in boiling point calculated. It indicates the total number of ions that are produced.

Explanation

Colligative properties are the properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it.

Boiling point of a solution increases with the increase in concentration of the solute in solution.

  • HOCH2CH2OH is a non-volatile, non-electrolyte solute and hence i=1. So total concentration is 0.20m
  • CaCl2 is completely dissolved and produces 3 ions and hence i=3. So total concentration is 0

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The aqueous solution with lowest freezing point has to be determined from the given aqueous solutions.

Concept introduction:

Colligative properties: Properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it. Colligative properties are,

  • Decrease in the vapor pressure
  • Increase in the boiling point
  • Decline in the boiling point
  • Osmotic pressure

Decline in the boiling point is huge when solute is an electrolyte than when solute is nonelectrolyte.

van’t Hoff factor, i: it is the ration between change in in boiling point measured and change in in boiling point calculated. It indicates the total number of ions that are produced.

Molality (m): Molality is the number of moles of solute present in one kilogram of solvent.

  Molality (m) =Numberofmolesofsolute1kgofsolvent

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The aqueous solution with highest vapor pressure has to be determined from the given aqueous solutions.

Concept introduction:

Colligative properties: Properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it. Colligative properties are,

  • Decrease in the vapor pressure
  • Increase in the boiling point
  • Decline in the boiling point
  • Osmotic pressure

Decline in the boiling point is huge when solute is an electrolyte than when solute is nonelectrolyte.

van’t Hoff factor, i: it is the ration between change in in boiling point measured and change in in boiling point calculated. It indicates the total number of ions that are produced.

Molality (m): Molality is the number of moles of solute present in one kilogram of solvent.

  Molality (m) =Numberofmolesofsolute1kgofsolvent

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