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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The smell of ripe raspberries is due to 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone, which has the empirical formula C5H6O. To find its molecular formula, you dissolve 0.135 g in 25.0 g of chloroform, CHCl3. The boiling point of the solution is 61.82 °C. What is the molecular formula of the solute?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The molar mass and its molecular formula of 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone is to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Colligative properties: Properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it. Colligative properties are,

  • Decrease in the vapor pressure
  • Increase in the boiling point
  • Decline in the freezing point
  • Osmotic pressure

Boiling point elevation: The boiling point of the solution varies with the solute concentration.

  ΔTbp=Kbpmsolute

  where,

  Kbp is the molal boiling point elevation constant.

The number of moles of any substance can be determined using the equation

  Numberofmole=GivenmassofthesubstanceMolarmass

Explanation

The molar mass and its molecular formula of 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone is calculated.

Given,

  ΔT=(61.820C61.700C)=0.120C

  Mass of 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone is 0.135g

  Mass of chloroform is 25g=0.025kg

  Molal boiling point elevation constant of chloroform is 3.630C/m

Change in boiling point is calculated by using the equation,

  ΔTbp=Kbpmsolute

Hence,

The concentration is calculated by,

  Concentration,msolute=ΔTbpKbp=(0.120C)(3.630C/m)=0.0331m

The amount of 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone is,

  (0.0331m1kg)(0.025kg)=8

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