BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

A tree is 10.0 m tall.

  1. (a) What must be the total molarity of the solutes if sap rises to the top of the tree by osmotic pressure at 20 °C? Assume the groundwater outside the tree is pure water and that the density of the sap is 1.0 g/mL. (1 mm Hg = 13.6 mm H2O.)
  2. (b) If the only solute in the sap is sucrose, C12H22O11, what is its percent by mass?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The total molarity of the solutes if a sap rises to the top of the tree by osmotic pressure at 20°C has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Colligative properties: Properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it. Colligative properties are,

  • Decrease in the vapor pressure
  • Increase in the boiling point
  • Decline in the freezing point
  • Osmotic pressure

Osmotic pressure: The pressure created by the column of solution for the system at equilibrium is a measure of the osmotic pressure.

  π=icRT

  where,

  c is the molar concentration

  i is the van’t Hoff factor

The number of moles of any substance can be determined using the equation

  Numberofmole=GivenmassofthesubstanceMolarmass

Percentage by mass: ratio of amount of solute to amount of solution and multiplied with 100.

  percentbymass=amountofsoluteamountofsolute+amountofsolvent×100%

Explanation

Given,

  R=0.08206L.atm K1mol1T=200C=(20+273.15)K=293.15KHeightoftree=10m=10×103mm=10000mm

  Density of the solution is 1.0g/mL

Given that 1mmHg=13.6mmH2O

The osmotic pressure is,

The osmotic pressure=(heightofcolumn)×(1mmHg13

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The percentage by mass of sucrose in the sap has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Colligative properties: Properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it. Colligative properties are,

  • Decrease in the vapor pressure
  • Increase in the boiling point
  • Decline in the freezing point
  • Osmotic pressure

Change in freezing point is calculated by using the equation,

  ΔTfp=Kfpmsolute

  where,

  Kfp is the molal freezing point depression constant.

The number of moles of any substance can be determined using the equation

  Numberofmole=GivenmassofthesubstanceMolarmass

Percentage by mass: ratio of amount of solute to amount of solution and multiplied with 100.

  percentbymass=amountofsoluteamountofsolute+amountofsolvent×100%

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 13 Solutions

Show all chapter solutions add

Additional Science Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts

Show solutions add

On average, young men in the United States obtain percent of their calories from beverages. a. 12 b. 22 c. 32 d...

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

2-33 Define: (a) Ion (b) Isotope

Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry

What is the function of the central vacuole in plants?

Biology: The Dynamic Science (MindTap Course List)