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Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692
Chapter 14, Problem 13E
Textbook Problem
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Use chemical equations to explain how an automobile battery works. What reaction is occurring at the anode and at the cathode?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The working of an automobile battery is to be explained and the reactions occurring at cathode and anode are to be discussed.

Concept introduction:

An automobile battery is the type of the battery that converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

Oxidation is the addition of an electronegative element or the removal of an electropositive element in a chemical reaction.

Reduction is the addition of an electropositive element or the removal of an electronegative element in a chemical reaction.

The chemical reaction in which oxidation process and reduction process take place simultaneously, is called a redox reaction.

Electrolysis is the process in which a reaction takes place at electrodes. The positively charged electrode is called anode. The negatively charged electrode is called cathode. During electrolysis, reduction takes place at the cathode and oxidation takes place at the anode.

Explanation of Solution

The automobile battery is a lead-acid storage battery. The lead-acid storage battery is the type of the battery that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. The electrical energy is converted into chemical energy with help of an external source and is called charging of the automobile battery. The chemical energy is converted into electrical energy with the help an external load and is called discharging of the automobile battery. The materials used in the automobile battery are lead oxide, sponge lead and dilute sulphuric acid.

Sulphuric acid completely dissociates into (2H+) and (SO42) in the aqueous solution. The automobile battery is formed when lead oxide and sponge lead are immersed in the dilute sulphuric acid. The positively charged hydrogen moves towards the electrode that is connected to the negative terminal. The negatively charged sulfate ion moves towards the electrode that is connected to the positive terminal.

PbO2 half-cell reaction will occur as reduction at the cathode. PbO2 is reduced in the presence of sulfate ion to form a Pb2+ ion.

PbO2(s)+SO42(aq)+2e+4H+(aq)PbSO4(s)+2H2O(l).

Pb half-cell reaction will occur as oxidation at the anode. Pb is oxidized in the presence of sulfate ion to form PbSO4.

Pb(s)+SO4(aq)PbSO4(g)+2e

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Chapter 14 Solutions

Chemistry In Focus
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