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According to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in 2011 there were 104 commercial nuclear reactors in the United States. In 2011, 4.1 10 6 gigawatt-hours of electricity were generated for use, and 19.43% of that was generated by nuclear power. (a) A nuclear technician assumed that the products of the fission of 2 3 5 U by one neutron were 9 7 Zr and 1 3 7 Te (see Problem 14.55). Ignoring decay products, the technician estimated the total mass of zirconium and tellurium in metric tons that would have to be disposed of in 2011 as nuclear waste (l watt-hour = joules; 1 metric ton = kg). What was the technician's result? (b) Look up the half-lives of 9 7 Zr and 1 3 7 Te. When the waste was disposed of, do you think there was a measurable quantity of either isotope? Explain. (c) Look up the decay mode of each isotope and write the decay series to a stable isotope for each one. Which decay series has a radioactive isotope that will remain in the waste for many years? (d) Using the stable isotope products in your calculation, how far off was the technician k estimate of total waste? Explain.

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Chemistry for Engineering Students

3rd Edition
Lawrence S. Brown + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285199023

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry for Engineering Students

3rd Edition
Lawrence S. Brown + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285199023
Chapter 14, Problem 14.59PAE
Textbook Problem
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According to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in 2011 there were 104 commercial nuclear reactors in the United States. In 2011, 4.1Chapter 14, Problem 14.59PAE, According to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in 2011 there were 104 commercial nuclear 106 gigawatt-hours of electricity were generated for use, and 19.43% of that was generated by nuclear power.

(a) A nuclear technician assumed that the products of the fission of 235U by one neutron were 97Zr and 137Te (see Problem 14.55). Ignoring decay products, the technician estimated the total mass of zirconium and tellurium in metric tons that would have to be disposed of in 2011 as nuclear waste (l watt-hour = joules; 1 metric ton = kg). What was the technician's result?

(b) Look up the half-lives of 97Zr and 137Te. When the waste was disposed of, do you think there was a measurable quantity of either isotope? Explain.

(c) Look up the decay mode of each isotope and write the decay series to a stable isotope for each one. Which decay series has a radioactive isotope that will remain in the waste for many years?

(d) Using the stable isotope products in your calculation, how far off was the technician k estimate of total waste? Explain.

Interpretation Introduction

a) Interpretation:

The total estimated mass Zr and Te disposed as nuclear waste by the nuclear technician

Concept Introduction: 235U

(uranium) undergoes a fission reaction which is neutron induced. On doing so, it will split into two smaller nuclei 97Zr

(zirconium) and 137Te(tellurium). In the process, neutrons and gamma rays are released. The nuclear equation for this reaction is as follows:

92235U+01n52137Te+4097Zr+201n

Explanation of Solution

The total amount of electrical energy generated by all the nuclear reactors is

En=19.43100×4.1×106×109×3600=2.867868×1018J

From the problem 14.55, we know the amount of energy released during the fission of 1 kg of 235U is 8.789748369×1014J

Hence,

Total mass of 235U used =2.867868×10188...

Interpretation Introduction

(b) Interpretation:

Whether any of the products Zr and Te obtained from the fission of 235U

are available in measurable quantities in the nuclear waste

Concept Introduction: 235U (uranium) undergoes a fission reaction which is neutron induced. On doing so, it will split into two smaller nuclei 97Zr (zirconium) and 137Te (tellurium). In the process, neutrons and gamma rays are released. The nuclear equation for this reaction is as follows:

92235U+01n52137Te+4097Zr+201n

Interpretation Introduction

(c) Interpretation:

Decay series of each isotope 97Zr and 137Te

Concept Introduction: 235U (uranium) undergoes a fission reaction which is neutron induced. On doing so, it will split into two smaller nuclei 97Zr(zirconium) and 137Te (tellurium). In the process, neutrons and gamma rays are released. The nuclear equation for this reaction is as follows:

92235U+01n52137Te+4097Zr+201n

Interpretation Introduction

(d) Interpretation:

The difference between the total mass of the waste using the stable isotope products and the technician’s estimated total mass.

Concept Introduction: 235U (uranium) undergoes a fission reaction which is neutron induced. On doing so, it will split into two smaller nuclei 97Zr (zirconium) and 137Te (tellurium). In the process, neutrons and gamma rays are released. The nuclear equation for this reaction is as follows:

92235U+01n52137Te+4097Zr+201n

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Chapter 14 Solutions

Chemistry for Engineering Students
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