14-8 Answer true or false. The functional group of an alcohol is the —OH (hydroxyl) group. The parent name of an alcohol is the name of the longest carbon chain that contains the —OH group. A primary alcohol contains one —OH group, and a tertiary alcohol contains three —OH groups. In the 1UPAC system, the presence of three —OH groups is shown by the ending —trial. A glycol is a compound that contains two —OH groups. The simplest glycol is ethylene glycol, HOCH 2 CH 2 OH. Because of the presence of an —OH group, all alcohols are polar compounds. The boiling points of alcohols increase with increasing molecular weight. (h, The solubility of alcohols in water increases with increasing molecular weight.

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Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759
BuyFind

Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759

Solutions

Chapter 14, Problem 14.8P
Textbook Problem

14-8 Answer true or false.

  1. The functional group of an alcohol is the —OH (hydroxyl) group.

  • The parent name of an alcohol is the name of the longest carbon chain that contains the —OH group.
  • A primary alcohol contains one —OH group, and a tertiary alcohol contains three —OH groups.
  • In the 1UPAC system, the presence of three
  • —OH groups is shown by the ending —trial.

  • A glycol is a compound that contains two —OH groups. The simplest glycol is ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH.
  • Because of the presence of an —OH group, all alcohols are polar compounds.
  • The boiling points of alcohols increase with increasing molecular weight.
  • (h, The solubility of alcohols in water increases with increasing molecular weight.

    Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (a)

    Interpretation:

    To analyse whether the given statement: The functional group of an alcohol is the −OH (hydroxyl) group, is true or not.

    Concept Introduction:

    Alcohols are those organic compounds wherein a hydrogen atom of the aliphatic carbon molecule is substituted by a hydroxyl group. Hence an alcohol molecule has two parts, one comprising the alkyl group and the other carrying hydroxyl group.

    The boiling point of alcohols is significantly higher than those of alkanes having similar molecular weights. The solubility of alcohol is inversely proportional to the size of the alkyl group. Alcohols reacts with active metals like sodium, potassium and many more to form the corresponding alkoxide.

    Answer to Problem 14.8P

    The functional group of an alcohol is the −OH (hydroxyl) group. Thus, the statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    The functional group of any alcohol is the —OH group. Therefore, the given statement is true.

    Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (b)

    Interpretation:

    To analyse whether the given statement: The parent name of an alcohol is the name of the longest carbon chain that contains the −OH group, is true or not.

    Concept Introduction:

    Alcohols are those organic compounds wherein a hydrogen atom of the aliphatic carbon molecule is substituted by a hydroxyl group. Hence an alcohol molecule has two parts, one comprising the alkyl group and the other carrying hydroxyl group.

    The boiling point of alcohols is significantly higher than those of alkanes having similar molecular weights. The solubility of alcohol is inversely proportional to the size of the alkyl group. Alcohols reacts with active metals like sodium, potassium and many more to form the corresponding alkoxide.

    Answer to Problem 14.8P

    The parent name of an alcohol is the name of the longest carbon chain that contains the −OH group.Thus, the statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    According to IUPAC nomenclature, the parent name of an alcohol is the name of the longest.

    carbon chain that contains the —OH group. Therefore, the given statement is true.

    Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (c)

    Interpretation:

    To analyse whether the given statement: A primary alcohol contains one −OH group, and a tertiary alcohol contains three-OH groups, is true or not.

    Concept Introduction:

    Alcohols are those organic compounds wherein a hydrogen atom of the aliphatic carbon molecule is substituted by a hydroxyl group. Hence an alcohol molecule has two parts, one comprising the alkyl group and the other carrying hydroxyl group.

    The boiling point of alcohols is significantly higher than those of alkanes having similar molecular weights. The solubility of alcohol is inversely proportional to the size of the alkyl group. Alcohols reacts with active metals like sodium, potassium and many more to form the corresponding alkoxide.

    Answer to Problem 14.8P

    A primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohol contains only one -OH groups but the connectivity of carbon atoms bearing −OH group is different. Thus, the statement is false.

    Explanation of Solution

    Primary alcohol is alcohol in which the -OH group is linked to carbon that is connected to only one carbon atom. It has like -CH2 OH group in molecule. Secondary alcohol is alcohol in which the -OH group is linked to carbon that is connected to two other carbon atoms. Tertiary alcohol is alcohol in which the -OH group is linked to carbon that is connected to three other carbon atoms. Primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols have only one -OH group in their molecule but the connectivity of carbon atom bearing -OH group is different. Therefore, the given statement is false.

    Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (d)

    Interpretation:

    To analyse whether the given statement: In the IUPAC system, the presence of three −OH groups is shown by the ending −triol, is true or not.

    Concept Introduction:

    Alcohols are those organic compounds wherein a hydrogen atom of the aliphatic carbon molecule is substituted by a hydroxyl group. Hence an alcohol molecule has two parts, one comprising the alkyl group and the other carrying hydroxyl group.

    The boiling point of alcohols is significantly higher than those of alkanes having similar molecular weights. The solubility of alcohol is inversely proportional to the size of the alkyl group. Alcohols reacts with active metals like sodium, potassium and many more to form the corresponding alkoxide.

    Answer to Problem 14.8P

    In the IUPAC system, the presence of three −OH groups is shown by the ending −triol. Thus, the statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    In IUPAC nomenclature, the presence of three -OH groups is shown by the ending triol Therefore, the given statement is true.

    Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (e)

    Interpretation:

    To analyze whether the given statement: A glycol is a compound that contains two-OH groups. The simplest glycol is ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, is true or not.

    Concept Introduction:

    Alcohols are those organic compounds wherein a hydrogen atom of the aliphatic carbon molecule is substituted by a hydroxyl group. Hence an alcohol molecule has two parts, one comprising the alkyl group and the other carrying hydroxyl group.

    The boiling point of alcohols is significantly higher than those of alkanes having similar molecular weights. The solubility of alcohol is inversely proportional to the size of the alkyl group. Alcohols reacts with active metals like sodium, potassium and many more to form the corresponding alkoxide.

    Answer to Problem 14.8P

    A glycol is a compound that contains two-OH groups. The simplest glycol is ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH.Thus, the statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    Glycol is a compound that has two -OH groups attached to carbon atoms. Ethyl glycol is the simplest form of glycol. Its structural formula is:

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Chapter 14, Problem 14.8P

    Therefore, the given statement is true.

    Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (f)

    Interpretation:

    To analyze whether the given statement: Because of the presence of an-OH group, all alcohols are polar compounds, is true or not.

    Concept Introduction:

    Alcohols are those organic compounds wherein a hydrogen atom of the aliphatic carbon molecule is substituted by a hydroxyl group. Hence an alcohol molecule has two parts, one comprising the alkyl group and the other carrying hydroxyl group.

    The boiling point of alcohols is significantly higher than those of alkanes having similar molecular weights. The solubility of alcohol is inversely proportional to the size of the alkyl group. Alcohols reacts with active metals like sodium, potassium and many more to form the corresponding alkoxide.

    Answer to Problem 14.8P

    Because of the presence of an -OH group, all alcohols are polar compounds. Thus, the statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    Polar molecules have polar covalent bonds connected between the atoms. Methanol is an example of alcohol. Here, the O-C bond and O-H bond are polar covalent bonds. In methanol, there is a difference in electronegativity between the O-C bond (3.5-2.5 = 1.0) and O-H bond (3.5-2.1 = 1.4) Electronegativity is the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself. Due to the presence of the O-H bond, all alcohols are polar molecules.

    Therefore, the given statement is true.

    Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (g)

    Interpretation:

    To analyze whether the given statement: The boiling point of alcohols increases with increasing molecular weight, is true or not.

    Concept Introduction:

    Alcohols are those organic compounds wherein a hydrogen atom of the aliphatic carbon molecule is substituted by a hydroxyl group. Hence an alcohol molecule has two parts, one comprising the alkyl group and the other carrying hydroxyl group.

    The boiling point of alcohols is significantly higher than those of alkanes having similar molecular weights. The solubility of alcohol is inversely proportional to the size of the alkyl group. Alcohols reacts with active metals like sodium, potassium and many more to form the corresponding alkoxide.

    Answer to Problem 14.8P

    The boiling point of alcohols increases with increasing molecular weight. Thus, the statement is true.

    Explanation of Solution

    The temperature at which the atmospheric pressure is equal to the vapor pressure is known as boiling point. As the molecular weight increases, more atoms are involved in the non-covalent interaction. Due to this tact, more energy (more temperature) is required to break this non-covalent interactions.Therefore, the given statement is true.

    Expert Solution
    Interpretation Introduction

    (h)

    Interpretation:

    To analyze whether the given statement: The solubility of alcohols in water increases with increasing molecular weight, is true or not.

    Concept Introduction:

    Alcohols are those organic compounds wherein a hydrogen atom of the aliphatic carbon molecule is substituted by a hydroxyl group. Hence an alcohol molecule has two parts, one comprising the alkyl group and the other carrying hydroxyl group.

    The boiling point of alcohols is significantly higher than those of alkanes having similar molecular weights. The solubility of alcohol is inversely proportional to the size of the alkyl group. Alcohols reacts with active metals like sodium, potassium and many more to form the corresponding alkoxide.

    Answer to Problem 14.8P

    The solubility of alcohols in water decreases with increasing molecular weight. Thus, the statement is false.

    Explanation of Solution

    Alcohols are more soluble in water than hydrocarbons. This is due to the presence of the O-H group in alcohol. The O-H group undergoes hydrogen bonding with a hydrogen atom in the water molecule.

    As the molecular weight increases, simultaneously the hydrocarbon chain in alcohol will also increase. Now the alcohol stars behaving more like hydrocarbons. Therefore, the solubility decreases with the increase in molecular weight.

    Therefore, the given statement is false.

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    Chapter 14 Solutions

    Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
    Ch. 14 - 14-11 Which of the alcohols in Problem 14-10 are...Ch. 14 - 14-12 Write the 1UPAC name of each compound. (e)...Ch. 14 - 14-13 Draw a structural formula for each alcohol....Ch. 14 - 14-14 Draw a structural formula for each of the...Ch. 14 - 14-15 Both alcohols and phenols contain an —OH...Ch. 14 - Prob. 14.16PCh. 14 - 14-17 Explain in terms of noncovalent interactions...Ch. 14 - 14-18 Explain in terms of noncovalent interactions...Ch. 14 - 14-19 Why does the water solubility of...Ch. 14 - 14-20 Show hydrogen bonding between methanol and...Ch. 14 - 14-21 Show hydrogen bonding between the oxygen of...Ch. 14 - 14-22 Arrange these compounds in order of...Ch. 14 - 14-23 Arrange these compounds in order of...Ch. 14 - 14-24 2-Propanol (isopropyl alcohol) is commonly...Ch. 14 - 14-25 Explain why glycerol is much thicker (more...Ch. 14 - 14-26 From each pair, select the compound that is...Ch. 14 - 14-27 Arrange the compounds in each set in order...Ch. 14 - 14-28 Give the structural formula of an alkene or...Ch. 14 - 14-29 Answer true or false. The two most important...Ch. 14 - 14-30 Show how to distinguish between cyclohexanol...Ch. 14 - 14-31 Compare the acidity of alcohols and phenols,...Ch. 14 - 14-32 Both 2,6-diisopropylcyclohexanol and the...Ch. 14 - 14-33 Write equations for the reaction of...Ch. 14 - 14-34 Write equations for the reaction of...Ch. 14 - 14-35 Write equations for the reaction of each of...Ch. 14 - 14-36 Show how to convert cyclohexanol to these...Ch. 14 - Prob. 14.37PCh. 14 - 14-38 Show how to convert this alcohol to...Ch. 14 - 14-39 Name two important alcohols derived from...Ch. 14 - 14-40 Name two important alcohols derived from...Ch. 14 - 14-41 Answer true or false. Ethanol and dimethyl...Ch. 14 - 14-42 Write the common name for each ether. ch3...Ch. 14 - 14-43 Write the common name for each of the...Ch. 14 - 14-44 Answer true or false. (a) The functional...Ch. 14 - 14-45 Write the IUPAC name of each thiol. SH I (a)...Ch. 14 - 14-46 Write the common name for each thiol in...Ch. 14 - 14-47 Following are structural formulas for...Ch. 14 - 14-48 Explain why methanethiol, CH3SH, has a lower...Ch. 14 - 14-49 Answer true or false. Today, the major...Ch. 14 - 14-50 (Chemical Connections 14A) As stated in the...Ch. 14 - 14-51 (Chemical Connections 14B) When was...Ch. 14 - 14-52 (Chemical Connections 14B) What was Alfred...Ch. 14 - 14-53 (Chemical Connections 14B) What is the...Ch. 14 - 14-54 (Chemical Connections 14C) What is the color...Ch. 14 - 14-55 (Chemical Connections 140 The legal...Ch. 14 - 14-56 (Chemical Connections 14D) What does it mean...Ch. 14 - 14-57 (Chemical Connections 14E) What are the...Ch. 14 - 14-58 (Chemical Connections 14E) Show that...Ch. 14 - 14-59 (Chemical Connections 14E) Would you expect...Ch. 14 - 14-60 Write a balanced equation for the complete...Ch. 14 - 14-61 Knowing what you do about electronegativity,...Ch. 14 - 14-62 Draw structural formulas and write IUPAC...Ch. 14 - 14-63 Draw structural formulas and write common...Ch. 14 - 14-64 Explain why the boiling point of ethylene...Ch. 14 - Prob. 14.65PCh. 14 - 14-66 1,4-Butanediol, hexane, and 1-pentanol have...Ch. 14 - 14-67 Of the three compounds given in Problem...Ch. 14 - 14-68 Each of the following compounds is a common...Ch. 14 - 14-69 Show how to prepare each compound from...Ch. 14 - 14-70 Show how to prepare each compound from...Ch. 14 - 14-71 The mechanism of the acid-catalyzed...Ch. 14 - Prob. 14.72PCh. 14 - 14-73 Lipoic acid is a growth factor for many...Ch. 14 - 14-74 Following is a structural formula for the...Ch. 14 - 14-75 As we will see in Chapter 16, the carbonyl...Ch. 14 - 14-76 Draw the structural formula for the hydrate...Ch. 14 - 14-77 With the exception of the acid-catalyzed...Ch. 14 - 14-78 Consider alkenes A, B, and C. each of which...Ch. 14 - 14-79 On acid-catalyzed hydration of alkenes A and...

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