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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The mechanism for the reaction of CH3OH and HBr is believed to involve two steps. The overall reaction is exothermic.

Step 1: Fast, endothermic

CH3OH + H+ ⇄ CH3OH2+

Step 2: Slow

CH3OH2+ + Br → CH3Br + H2O

  1. (a) Write an equation for the overall reaction.
  2. (b) Draw a reaction coordinate diagram for this reaction.
  3. (c) Show that the rate law for this reaction is Rate = k[CH3OH][H+][Br].

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

An equation for the overall reaction has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

In order to establish the plausibility of a mechanism, one must compare the rate law of the rate determining step to the experimentally determined rate law.

Rate determining step: In a chemical reaction the rate determining step is the slowest step. The rate of the reaction depends on the rate of that slowest step.

Rate law: It is generally the rate equation that consists of the reaction rate with the concentration or the pressures of the reactants and constant parameters.

Activation energy: It is the minimum energy required by the reacting species in order to undergo chemical reaction.

In a chemical reaction, the species that present left is denoted as reactant which undergoes chemical change and result to give new species called product.

In a chemical reaction, the species that present in right side is denoted as product that results from the reactant.

Reaction coordinate: It is the diagrammatic representation of a chemical reaction which depicts how the reactants get transformed into product where the transition state and the intermediates present in the reaction are also depicted.

Explanation

The overall chemical reaction is obtained from adding the given elementary steps.

The sum of elementary steps results equation which contains equal species on the reactant and the product side that cancels each other and finally leads to the overall chemical equation as follows:

Step1:CH3OH+H+CH3OH2+Step2:CH3OH2++Br<

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

A reaction coordinate diagram for the given reaction has to be given.

Concept introduction:

In order to establish the plausibility of a mechanism, one must compare the rate law of the rate determining step to the experimentally determined rate law.

Rate determining step: In a chemical reaction the rate determining step is the slowest step in which the rate of the reaction depends on the rate of that slowest step.

Activation energy: It is defined as the minimum energy required by the reacting species in order to undergo chemical reaction.

Rate law: It is generally the rate equation that consists of the reaction rate with the concentration or the pressures of the reactants and constant parameters.

Reactant: In a chemical reaction the species that present left is denoted as reactant which undergoes chemical change and result to given new species called product.

Product: In a chemical reaction the species that present in right side is denoted as product that results from the reactant.

Reaction coordinate: It is the diagrammatic representation of a chemical reaction which depicts how the reactants gets transformed into product where the transition state and the intermediates present in the reaction are also depicted.

Enthalpy change: The change in the energy as the product formed from the reactants is represented by the enthalpy change in the reaction coordinate diagram.

Intermediate species: It is the species formed during the middle of the chemical reaction between the reactant and the desired product.

Molecularity: The molecularity of the reaction actually denotes the number of species that present in the rate determining step of the reaction.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The rate law for the given reaction is Rate=k[CH3OH][H+][Br-] has to be shown.

Concept introduction:

In order to establish the plausibility of a mechanism, one must compare the rate law of the rate determining step to the experimentally determined rate law.

Rate determining step: In a chemical reaction the rate determining step is the slowest step in which the rate of the reaction depends on the rate of that slowest step.

Activation energy: It is defined as the minimum energy required by the reacting species in order to undergo chemical reaction.

Rate law: It is generally the rate equation that consists of the reaction rate with the concentration or the pressures of the reactants and constant parameters.

Reactant: In a chemical reaction the species that present left is denoted as reactant which undergoes chemical change and result to given new species called product.

Product: In a chemical reaction the species that present in right side is denoted as product that results from the reactant.

Reaction coordinate: It is the diagrammatic representation of a chemical reaction which depicts how the reactants gets transformed into product where the transition state and the intermediates present in the reaction are also depicted.

Enthalpy change: The change in the energy as the product formed from the reactants is represented by the enthalpy change in the reaction coordinate diagram.

Intermediate species: It is the species formed during the middle of the chemical reaction between the reactant and the desired product.

Molecularity: The molecularity of the reaction actually denotes the number of species that present in the rate determining step of the reaction.

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