BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Nitramide, NO2NH2, decomposes slowly in aqueous solution according to the following reaction:

NO2NH2(aq) → N2O(g) + H2O()

The reaction follows the experimental rate law

Rate= k[NO 2 NH 2 ] [H 3 O + ]

  1. (a) What is the apparent order of the reaction in a pH buffered solution? (In a pH buffered solution, the concentration of H3O+ is a constant.)
  2. (b) Which of the following mechanisms is the most appropriate for the interpretation of this rate law? Explain. (Note that when writing the expression for K, the equilibrium constant, [H2O] is not involved. See Chapter 15.)

    Mechanism 1

    NO 2 NH 2 K 1  N 2 O + H 2 O

    Mechanism 2

    NO 2 NH 2 +H 3 O + k 2 k 2  NO 2 NH 3 +  + H 2 O (rapid equilibrium)

    NO 2 NH 3 + k 3 N 2 O + H 3 O + (rate-limiting step)

    Mechanism 3

    NO 2 NH 2 +H 2 O k 4 k 4  NO 2 NH + H 3 O + (rapid equilibrium) NO 2 NH k 5 N 2 O+OH (rate-limiting step) H 3 O + +OH k 6 2H 2 O (very fast reaction)

  3. (c) Show the relationship between the experimentally observed rate constant, k, and the rate constants in the selected mechanism.
  4. (d) Based on the experimental rate law, will the reaction rate increase or decrease if the pH of the solution is increased?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Order of the reaction in pH buffered solution has to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Rate order: The order of each reactant in a reaction is represented by the exponential term of the respective reactant present in the rate law and the overall order of the reaction is the sum of all the exponents of all reactants present in the chemical reaction.  The order of the reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the reactants.

Rate law: It is generally the rate equation that consists of the reaction rate with the concentration or the pressures of the reactants and constant parameters.

Rate constant: The rate constant for a chemical reaction is the proportionality term in the chemical reaction rate law which gives the relationship between the rate and the concentration of the reactant present in the chemical reaction.

pH : It is used to measure the acidity of chemical substances present in water.  Increased pH means more H+ ions present in the solution.

Explanation

Examining the rate law shows that the order of reactant NO2NH2 is one and the order of H3O+ is -1

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The given mechanism is most appropriate for the interpretation of this rate law should be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Rate order: The order of each reactant in a reaction is represented by the exponential term of the respective reactant present in the rate law and the overall order of the reaction is the sum of all the exponents of all reactants present in the chemical reaction.  The order of the reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the reactants.

Rate law: It is generally the rate equation that consists of the reaction rate with the concentration or the pressures of the reactants and constant parameters.

Rate constant: The rate constant for a chemical reaction is the proportionality term in the chemical reaction rate law which gives the relationship between the rate and the concentration of the reactant present in the chemical reaction.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The relationship between experimentally observed rate constant and the rate constant in the selected mechanism has to be shown.

Concept Introduction:

Rate order: The order of each reactant in a reaction is represented by the exponential term of the respective reactant present in the rate law and the overall order of the reaction is the sum of all the exponents of all reactants present in the chemical reaction.  The order of the reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the reactants.

Rate law: It is generally the rate equation that consists of the reaction rate with the concentration or the pressures of the reactants and constant parameters.

Rate constant: The rate constant for a chemical reaction is the proportionality term in the chemical reaction rate law which gives the relationship between the rate and the concentration of the reactant present in the chemical reaction.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Either the reaction increase or decrease if the pH of the solution is increased has to be shown based on the experimental rate law.

Concept Introduction:

Rate order: The order of each reactant in a reaction is represented by the exponential term of the respective reactant present in the rate law and the overall order of the reaction is the sum of all the exponents of all reactants present in the chemical reaction.  The order of the reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the reactants.

Rate law: It is generally the rate equation that consists of the reaction rate with the concentration or the pressures of the reactants and constant parameters.

Rate constant: The rate constant for a chemical reaction is the proportionality term in the chemical reaction rate law which gives the relationship between the rate and the concentration of the reactant present in the chemical reaction.

pH : It is used to measure the acidity of chemical substances present in water.  Increased pH means more H+ ions present in the solution.

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 14 Solutions

Show all chapter solutions add

Additional Science Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts

Show solutions add

Discuss whether you believe that an eating pattern approach to dietary guidelines is best, or that specific nut...

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

How do eating disorders affect health?

Understanding Nutrition (MindTap Course List)

How do Newton’s laws lead you to conclude that gravitation has to be universal?

Horizons: Exploring the Universe (MindTap Course List)

21-29 Name all the groups of complex lipids that contain ceramides.

Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry

Which of the following, taken by itself, would be most effective in increasing the rate at which energy is tran...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)

Why does nuclear fusion require high temperatures and high densities?

Foundations of Astronomy (MindTap Course List)

What causes the greatest loss of life and property when a tropical cyclone reaches land?

Oceanography: An Invitation To Marine Science, Loose-leaf Versin