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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Chlorine atoms contribute to the destruction of the Earth’s ozone layer by the following sequence of reactions:

Cl + O3 → ClO + O2

ClO + O → Cl + O2

where the O atoms in the second step come from the decomposition of ozone by sunlight:

O3(g) → O(g) + O2(g)

What is the net equation on summing these three equations? Why does this lead to ozone loss in the stratosphere? What is the role played by Cl in this sequence of reactions? What name is given to species such as ClO?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The net equation for the given ozone destruction sequence of reactions, the reason behind the ozone loss, the role played by chlorine and the name given to ClO should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Atmosphere: The atmosphere is defined as air that is layer of gases which surrounds the earth due to gravity of earth.

The earth atmosphere consists of layers such as thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere and troposphere depending on the temperature and its composition.

Stratosphere:

It is found below the mesosphere layer in which the concentration of ozone and other gases are high. The increasing temperature for this layer with respect to increasing height is due to the presence of high concentration of ozone and other gases in it.

The increased temperature is due to the response of UV radiation from sun and hence ozone is formed due to this reaction and the use of ozone is that it prevents the UV radiation from the sun which is actually harmful.

Greenhouse effect: The heat near the earth surface gets trapped by the gases present in the earth atmosphere. The carbon dioxide is the primary gas that traps more heat.

Conditions that greenhouse gas should fulfil is as follows,

The gas is considered as greenhouse gas if it possesses dipole moment or the vibrational motions of the gases should create some temporary dipole moment.

Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC): They are compounds that contain only carbon, fluorine and chlorine with it. They are gases can be easily liquefied, have little ability to react readily, are non-poisonous and do not catch fire easily.

Explanation

The role of CFC in ozone depletion is as follows:

  Cl+O3ClO+O2ClO+OCl+O2O3+ O2O2

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